Sunday, February 20, 2011

Tips for online auctions

For just a moment, try to comprehend the power of the Internet. Every day, there are millions of people from around the globe “surfing the web.”
People run their business from the Internet, search for love, research succulent recipes, plan vacations, and best of all – they SHOP! People that shop are always looking for a bargain, not just any bargain, but something spectacular.
The most popular public auction site, eBay, is where people gather to find anything from dishes to jewelry to houses and just about everything in between. Last year there was even a mother sold on eBay!
You can purchase amazing original artwork from China, have it signed by the artist, and shipped directly to your home. Perhaps you are trying to find 12 yards of Toile to reupholster your couch. You might even be looking for a new lawnmower or different power tools. The great news is that eBay has it all!
The other side of buying is the selling. Anyone can sell anything on eBay. Open an account, list your product, and wait for the bids to start coming in. There are secrets to being a power seller on eBay. While it is true that anyone can sell, to be successful, you need to know the inside secrets. One woman made over $250,000 last year on items sold on eBay. She is just one out of thousands and thousands of people that make a ton of money just selling merchandise.
Are you ready to learn how to be an eBay seller? You will find it to be easy, fun, and exciting.

1.
Collectibles
Hot sellers on eBay are collectibles such as coins, stamps, or dolls. You can check out the collectibles category to get a better idea of what people love to buy. Anything that will move up in value would fall in this category.

2.
Consumables
This popular category would include anything that people use and then would need to buy again such as lotions, perfumes, camera film, candles, etc.

3.
Information Products
In this category, you would sell anything that can be sent on a CD or floppy disc or downloaded from the Internet. This is another popular category.

4.
Start at Home
When you first get started, it can be a little unnerving. The best option is to start by looking around your own home. Think of items that you would sell in a garage sale. However, instead of pricing each item and lugging it outside hoping for a nice sunny day, you can advertise them on the Internet.

5.
Just eBay
Although there are several other quality auction websites, eBay is by far the most popular and most successful. Although you could start using all the other sites, by spreading yourself out too thin you take the risk of getting things mixed up. In reality, it is better to use eBay and focus your attention and efforts on this one site. You will not be disappointed.

6.
Look Around
Navigate through each section to familiarize yourself with all the different pages. You will find a site map and help tab, which are very useful tools. It will take a little time to get used to the site but start by looking. As you start selling, navigating will become much easier.

7.
Quick Response
When you have an item listed on eBay and a potential buyer contacts you with a question, respond quickly. It is important and actually critical to your success to check your account several times a day. Answering a question could be the difference between you getting the sale or the buyer going elsewhere.

8.
Trustworthiness
It is extremely important that you handle your account with integrity. The number of positive comments and amount of stars earned are what will be the deciding factor for many buyers. Be professional, polite, and stand by what you sell.

9.
Accuracy
When you list your item(s) on eBay, write an accurate description. You do not have to write long paragraphs of rambling information but provide exact measurements, colors, condition, etc. Be extremely precise when it comes to your description.

10.
Buyer Contact
Once your item(s) have sold, be responsive to the buyer. Contact them in a quick manner, thank them for their purchase, and provide the required information for payment.
11.
Sending Items
In your description, provide accurate details regarding shipment. Make sure the item(s) are sent within the time you stated. In many cases, people purchase something for a specific purpose and if you do not ship it when stated, not only do you mess up their schedule for the item but you have probably lost a customer and opened the door for a negative feedback.

12.
Professional Wrapping
When you wrap your item(s), wrap it professionally in nice, clean tissue paper. If breakable, be sure the item is wrapped with bubble wrap as well. Include a business card with your website information, name, address, or a printed out statement showing the item(s) name, item(s) number, price paid, and a small hand-written note thanking the buyer for their purchase.

13.
Payment Options
The more options you can provide potential buyers, the better your chances of making the sale. Your options include PayPal, which is an online payment service, Billpoint, eBay’s payment system, personal checks, money orders, or cash. Remember that you will have buyers from around the world so an online payment service is extremely helpful.

14.
Shipping / Handling
You should always charge actual shipping costs. Several options can be added to your account that provides the actual costs. Another option is to state that you will provide actual shipping at the end of the auction, based on the destination zip code. Overcharging customers for shipping and handling is frowned upon and will result is unhappy customers.

15.
Insurance
Insurance is usually a good idea but in general, it should be an optional feature, with the decision left to the buyer. Remember two important things about insurance. First, insurance is VERY inexpensive. Therefore, in your description, you should state how much insurance would cost and recommend it. Second, you should also state in the description that if insurance is not purchased, you are not responsible for lost or damaged items.

16.
Go the Extra Mile
You want every customer to be a happy customer. If you have to do a little more research on shipping, or negotiate on price, remember that the customer is the reason you will have success. Therefore, be prepared to go the extra mile in providing them with superior service every single time.

17.
Auction Price
Set your auctions low, which will help encourage more bidding. The more bidding you have, the higher the price will ultimately go. In addition, if you add a “Buy Now” option for your auction, keep this set at a reasonable rate as well.

18.
Listing Category
When you choose which category to list your items, choose wisely. You will find some categories that are similar yet just enough different that it could make a big difference in how your item(s) is sold. Look at other items listed and choose appropriately.

19.
Sell by Lots
If you have two or more of one item, you can list it as a “lot.” For example, if you had five bottles of suntan lotion purchased from a salvage store for .50 each, and you decided to list them on eBay for $1.00 each, rather than list each one separately, another option is to sell them as a lot. Often times, people perform their search based on lots. However, if you had one bottle of suntan lotion, one bottle of regular lotion, and one bottle of aloe vera, you would want to list them as their own item.

20.
Completed Items
Look through completed items to research the prices paid by buyers for other auctions similar to yours. This will provide you with a better idea of what a good asking price would be if you were not sure where to start.
21.
Photographs
While auctions without photographs can and do sell, auctions with photographs sell much better. People like visualizations and want to see what their money is getting them. Make sure your photograph is clear, focused, and depending on the item (such as rings, shoes, etc.), offers more than just a straight view.


22.
Competitor Analysis
Just like any other business, you need to know what your competitors are doing. This will help you make the best possible decision when it comes to your own auction. Before listing your item(s), do a search for the same type item(s) to see what their descriptions looks like. Find different aspects from different sellers and use them to form one comprehensive site for yourself.

23.
Mister Lister
If you have trouble listing your item, use eBay’s service, Mister Lister, to help you get your items listed with ease. This is just one of many outstanding services provided by eBay.

24.
Size and Weight
If possible, stay with items that are smaller and lightweight. Remember that whatever you sell, you have to ship. Items such as furniture, lawnmowers, etc. are generally sold through a manufacturer or wholesaler. As an independent seller, you want to sell items that are easy to manage.

25.
Shipping Options
Set up accounts with several overnight couriers such as Federal Express and UPS. Once again, the more options offered, the better your auction will be received.

26.
Weighing
In order to provide accurate details and help in determining shipping costs, you need to know exact weights. The best option, which will save you many unnecessary trips to the post office, is to purchase an inexpensive quality scale for weighing your packages.

27.
Postage
Instead of always running out of stamps or having to run to the post office to ship a smaller item, fill out the information located at stamps.com where you can print stamps directly from your home computer.

28.
Shipping Rates
A quick and easy way to determine shipping costs is by visiting iship.com. This will allow you to provide shipping information to the buyer quickly, which in turn prompts quick payment.

29.
Reserve Auctions
Instead of listing your auction starting at a minimum bid, you might try setting a low reserve price, which attracts some bidders. Once your item(s) sells eBay then refunds your reserve auction fee.

30.
About Me
This important page needs to be completed. This is your opportunity to brag to your customers about the excellent service and amazing products you provide. Tell buyers about your guarantees, your integrity, and anything you like to encourage buyers to check out your auctions.
31.
HTML Code
If you want to bring life to your auctions, you should try using HTML tags. A strong recommendation by eBay is to avoid flashing animations since they actually create a distraction from your items. If you do not know how to use HTML, eBay offers an HTML tutorial page or you can hire someone to do this for you for a reasonable fee.

32.
Weekend Listings
To increase your chance of selling your item(s), work the amount of time you choose for your auction (7 or 10 days) to end on a weekend (there are some exceptions listed further down). The reason is that more bidders visit eBay on the weekends and since people jump in at the last minute to get a bargain, you increase your chance of a sale.

33.
Headlines
Do not add symbols such as asterisks (***) in your headlines. Although they may add a little punch to your headline, they also mess up how your auction is posted since asterisks are a part of HTML code. In fact, if you use asterisk, there is a high probability that your auction will not even show up.

34.
NetMechanic.com
If you have a photograph that is too large for eBay’s specifications, you can shrink them down using netmechanic.com. When you first get started, working with photographs can be a little challenging. Do not give up – eBay offers this service for this very reason.

35.
Checkout
If you choose to use eBay’s checkout system, make sure every box is checked when you list your item(s). This option can be helpful when used correctly, but can also be confusing.

36.
Community Boards
Pay attention to the community boards provided by eBay. They offer valuable information and helpful tips that can ultimately save you time and effort.

37.
Flaws
Advise potential buyers of any flaws in your products. If you are selling a plate that has a small chip, mention this in the description. If you are selling fabric and it has a small tear, disclose this information. The majority of eBay buyers are looking for bargains, which means minor defects can often be overlooked. The worse possible scenario would be to keep a flaw hidden and then have to deal with handling returns as well as losing a buyer.

38.
Negative Feedback
Unlike other sites that use a feedback system, eBay’s feedback is sacred and taken very seriously. Negative feedback is never removed. Therefore, if you leave negative feedback rather than trying to handle a tough situation between you and the seller, this could give you a bad reputation. If people see that you consistently leave negative feedback because your buyer did not pay as quickly as you like or whatever reason, buyers will be leery of buying from you in fear of getting negative feedback themselves should something go wrong.

39.
Second ID
One of the great features on eBay is the benefit of having more than one ID. If you will be doing a lot of selling, this doubles or triples your chance of selling and setting up different types of auction sites.

40.
PO Freebies
If you use the Priority Mail option through your post office, they will provide all your supplies free. This would include boxes, labels, and tape. Best of all, they deliver all these supplies directly to your door. In addition, go to USPS.com or UPS.com and request mailing supplies.41.
Post Office Box
Rather than use your home address, rent a mailbox at your local post office. This maintains the security of your home address while ensuring that everything comes and goes out of one place. These boxes are very inexpensive and well worth the small investment.

42.
eBay Canada
When you get ready to sell items on eBay, consider signing up for eBay.ca (Canada). The Canada site is not as large as the US version of eBay so there are considerably fewer listings, which means that you have a greater chance of selling your item(s) since there is less competition.

43.
Excluded Items
Although eBay accepts just about every type of item, there are a few exclusions such as explosions, corrosive material, etc. Before you go through the entire process of listing your item(s), make sure you are not listing something forbidden by checking out the do’s and don’ts listed on eBay.

44.
Category Guide
Use eBay’s Category Guide, which is a helpful tool to ensure you place your auction item(s) in the appropriate category.

45.
Auction Title
Just as using a strong title for a book, your eBay auction title needs to captivate buyers. You are allowed 45 characters for your title and you need to use common words that will draw attention. Use this space carefully and to your advantage. Think of words that will be easily found when people conduct a search. For example, if you are selling six yards of fabric you could say something like, “Stunning material – Don’t miss this great bargain.” If you are selling fishing poles, try something like, “Love to fish? GREAT buy on fishing poles!” Since the search option on eBay looks for specific characters, you should try to list the item both singular and plural. As an example, for the fishing poles, you could list the auction as, “Fishing Poles – Get your fishing pole now!” Avoid wasted words such as WOW or Look Here. Buyers are looking so there is no need to tell them to look. Again, as buyers looking through the listings, the titles are what will capture their attention. Make your impression a strong one!

46.
Abbreviations
Saving space in titles can be important if you have a longer description. Look at other auctions selling the same type of merchandise to get an idea of the types of abbreviations that will work. As an example, you could write, “Do U love to fish?” or “Gorgeous material 4 sale.”

47.
Buyer’s Questions
When you write your description try to think of questions buyers may have so your description will answer as many possible questions as possible. This will save time in relaying messages back and forth. This would include the manufacturers’ name, condition of the item(s), special features, warranties, color, defects, etc.

48.
Focus
Before you post your photos, make sure they are focused, aligned, centered, etc. A bad photo can stop the sale of your item(s) just as a good photo can help make the sale. In addition, if there is a difference, even slight, in color from what the actual item is and how it shows in the photo, be sure to describe any discrepancies in detail.

49.
Pricing Methods
If you find that starting a price low and building is not working for you, try various pricing methods to find the one that you are comfortable with using. A great feature now offered by eBay is fixed pricing, which is something many people like to use.

50.
Page One
The very first page is the sell form where you will find three choices. This is a valuable forum where you will determine your pricing method. Do not skim through this page but read all the detail and make good choices.

FOR MORE TIPS PLEASE FOLLOW MY BLOG FREQUENTLY

Tips to keep your hair longer - thinning hair in women

You have been aware that more hair than usual appears on the floor after a shower. Do you get worried or hope it is just a phase and will pass. If you suddenly notice a significant amount of hair is falling out then the very first thing to do is to visit your doctor.
You need to find out if there is any medical reason why you are experiencing sudden hair loss, and that can be hormonal changes due to pregnancy that will pass. If however there is now specific medical reason why your hair is thinning, then I have some tips to help you keep your hair for longer.
1. Stress - one of the biggest causes of problems in our bodies, and can also affect the hair. If you are in a stressful situation be it at home or work, then this could be causing your hair to come out. Look at what you can do to reduce stress in your life, more downtime or "you time" everyday will certainly help.
2. Diet - are you eating well and getting the right nutrients you body needs? This is also important if you have stress in your life. The right diet not only helps us to feel good, but provides our body with everything it needs to function properly. If you have been skipping meals, or eating too many meals on the run, then you are probably not getting enough of the right vitamin and minerals. Vitamin B group is helpful for good healthy hair.
3. Exercise - also important to help against stress. Exercise is important to maintain healthy shiny hair. Exercise helps to increase and improve circulation. Improv3ed circulation means more blood getting to the scalp which can lean to healthier hair. Healthy hair is strong hair.
4. Hair products - some hair care products have a harsh effect on the scalp and the hair follicles, which can damage the hair follicles and lead to thinner hair. To protect your hair always use gentle products. Heat from hair dryers used excessively can lead to damage to the hair strands. To keep you r hair looking healthier look for alternatives to heat treatments.
These tips will help you protect your hair, but will not stop thinning. There are products available to prevent the hair follicle from becoming damaged which leads to hair loss. These products like Rogaine which is applied to the scalp. These products have to be used continually. Hair loss will continue if the treatment is stopped.
The most effective tip I can give you, is to decide early to look after your hair. If you suspect your hair is thinning then take immediate action to maintain the hair you currently have for as long as possible. It is always easier to protect what you have than to replace lost hair.

Facts about channel tunnel

The Channel Tunnel, or "Chunnel" constitutes an ambitious effort to span one of the most important waterways in the world. The English Channel stretches between France and Great Britain, separating the UK from continental Europe. It as served as a protective barrier in the past--helping to keep England free of invasion from Napoleon and Nazi Germany among others--but can serve as a barrier to travel and trade. For thousands of years, passage across the Channel was limited to boats and ferries (though plane travel appeared in the 20th Century). The Channel Tunnel changed all of that forever.

    History

  1. Plans for building a passage across the English Channel can be traced to 1802, when Albert Mathieu drew up an optimistic plan involving horse-drawn carriages and an island midway across the Channel. British national security concerns soon nixed it, along with numerous similar proposals. In the later half of the 20th Century, however, Britain and France had become close allies, and security concerns were lessened. Even then, it took some time before a proper plan came to fruition. The Treaty of Canterbury, signed in 1986, officially commissioned the project. Tunneling began in June, 1988 on the French side and December of that year on the British side. The Chunnel officially opened in May, 1994.
  2. Specifics

  3. The Channel Tunnel actually consists of three separate tunnels: two railway tunnels and a service tunnel between them. The two terminals stand at Folkestone on the British side and Coquelles (near Calais) on the French side. It runs just over 31 miles, and transportation is permitted for Eurotunnel Shuttle, Eurostar passenger trains and freight trains carrying cargo. Services exist allowing travelers to take cars through: the cars are placed on trains and then unloaded on the far side, allowing for easy transport.
  4. Speed

  5. The biggest advantage of the Channel Tunnel has been the speed of overland routes between Britain and France. The rigmarole of air traffic is eliminated, and there's no need to take a slow-moving ferry. High speed trains traveling through the Channel Tunnel can complete a trip from London to Paris in about 2 hours and 15 minutes.
  6. Traffic Levels

  7. Traffic levels have not been what the Channel Tunnel builders anticipated, and the endeavor has often operated at a loss. Freight tonnage varies between 1.2 million and 3 million per year, though that number has steadily declined since 2001. The number of passengers using the Chunnel averages about 15 million per year.
  8. Fires

  9. As of 2009, three fires large enough to necessitate its closure have broken out in the Channel Tunnel. The first took place in 1996, the second in 2000 and the third in 2008. No one was killed in those fires--Britain and France have coordinated emergency plans for most contingencies--but they have caused expensive damage to the Channel facilities.

Top 10 most expensive projects in the world

These most expensive projects in the world belong to several projects in the world that cost a lot of money to make amazing results. Those projects become masterpiece of the human civilizations. Here’s 10 most expensive projects in the world. Those projects is like a parameter of how advanced human technology is. So here’s the list that maybe will make You inspired to make something more amazing
10. The Pearl Bridge : $ 5 Billions
This bridge has a longest center span from other suspension bridges, at 1991 meters (6532 feet). Located in Japan and completed in 1998. Connecting the mainland city of Kobe on Honshu to Iwaya on Awaji Island crossing a busy Akashi Strait.
most expensive projects the pearl bridge Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
The Pearl bridge
9. The Large Hadron Collider : $ 6 Billions

LHC is the world’s largest energy particle accelerator. LHC is located in a 27 kilometers (17 miles) tunnel and 175 meters (570 feet) below the French-Swiss border near Geneva, Switzerland.
most expensive projects The Large Hadron Collider Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
The Large Hadron Collider
8. The James “Sunny Jim” Rolph Bridge : $ 6.3 Billions
A series of bridges in San Francisco Bay Area of California, in the United States. Establish a direct route between San Francisco and Oakland. Able to carry about 270,000 vehicles per day on two decks.
most expensive projects The James Sunny Jim Rolph Bridge Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
The James "Sunny Jim" Rolph Bridge
7. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER): $6,5 Billions
ITER is a research / engineering project that could help to make the transition of plasma physics to future electricity generation mix (fusion power plant).
most expensive projects International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor
6. Trans-Alaska Pipeline System : $ 8 Billions

The Project consists of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, 11 gas stations, several hundred miles of feeder pipelines, and the Valdez Marine Terminal. Total length of 800.302 miles (1,287.961 km) and wide 48-inch (122 cm) pipeline delivering oil from Prudhoe Bay to Valdez, Alaska. Private property of the Alaska Pipeline Service Company.
most expensive projects trans alaska pipeline system Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
Trans Alaska pipeline system
most expensive projects trans alaska pipeline system in snow Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
Trans Alaska Pipeline System in Snow
5. PCU Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78): $8.1 Billions

PCU Gerald R. Ford (CVN-78) is to be the lead ship of her class of United States Navy supercarriers. As announced by the U.S. Navy on 16 January 2007, the ship will be named after the 38th President of the United States, the late Gerald R. Ford, whose World War II naval service included combat duty aboard the light aircraft carrier Monterey in the Pacific Theater.
Gerald R. Ford was laid down on 13 November 2009. Construction work began on 11 August 2005, when Northrop Grumman held a ceremonial steel cut for a 15-ton plate that will form part of a side shell unit of the carrier. The schedule calls for the ship to join the U.S. Navy’s fleet in 2015. Gerald R. Ford is slated to replace the current USS Enterprise, ending her then 50-plus years of service with the United States Navy.
most expensive projects PCU Gerald R Ford CVN 78 Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
PCU Gerald R Ford CVN 78
4. Le tunnel sous la Manche: $8.31 Billions

The Channel Tunnel (French: Le tunnel sous la Manche), known colloquially as the Chunnel, is a 50.5-kilometre (31.4 mi) undersea rail tunnel linking Folkestone, Kent near Dover in the United Kingdom with Coquelles, Pas-de-Calais  near Calais  in northern France beneath the English Channel at the Strait of Dover. At its lowest point it is 75 metres (250 ft) deep.At 37.9 kilometres (23.5 mi), the Channel Tunnel has the longest undersea portion of any tunnel in the world although the Seikan Tunnel in Japan is both longer overall, at 53.85 kilometres (33.46 mi) and deeper, at 240 metres (790 ft) below sea level.
The tunnel carries high-speed Eurostar passenger trains, Eurotunnel Shuttle roll-on/roll-off vehicle transport—the largest in the world—and international rail freight trains. The tunnel connects end-to-end with the LGV Nord and Channel Tunnel Rail Link high-speed railway lines. In 1996 the American Society of Civil Engineers identified the tunnel as one of the Seven Wonders of the Modern World.
Ideas for a cross-Channel fixed link appeared as early as 1802, but British political and press pressure over compromised national security stalled attempts to construct a tunnel. However, the eventual successful project, organised by Eurotunnel, began construction in 1988 and opened in 1994. The project came in 80% over its predicted budget. Since its construction, the tunnel has faced several problems. Fires have disrupted operation of the tunnel. Illegal immigrants and asylum seekers have used the tunnel to enter Britain, causing a minor diplomatic disagreement over the siting of the Sangatte refugee camp, which was eventually closed in 2002
most expensive projects Le tunnel sous la Manche Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
Le tunnel sous la Manche
3. The Big Dig Boston: $14.6 Billions
A route of mega project main highway tunnel through the heart of Boston along the 3.5 miles (5.6 km). Initially, the plan was also to include the relationship between Boston with two major railway.
most expensive projects the big dig Boston Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
The Big Dig Boston
2. Three Gorges Dam : $ 26 Billions
Dam of the Yangtze River in the town of Sandouping, which is located in Yiling District Yichang, Hubei province, China. is the world’s largest power plants. Body of the dam was completed in 2006. contains 32 main generators, each with a capacity of 700 MW. Additional six generators at the power plant being installed underground.
the total electricity generating capacity of the dam will eventually reach 22,500 MW. Generate hydroelectric power projects, increasing the capacity of river navigation, and reduce the potential for flooding downstream floods by providing storage space. Until September 2009 the dam has produced 348.4 TWh of electricity.
most expensive projects three gorges dam Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
Three Gorges Dam
1.International Space Center : $157 Billions
International Space Station (ISS) is a research facility developed internationally are currently located in low Earth orbit. On-orbit construction of the station began in 1998 and is scheduled for completion in 2011, with operations continuing until at least until 2015. just like the moon, the station can be seen from Earth with the naked eye, this is the largest man-made orbiting ever in history. ISS serves as a long-term research in the laboratory, and is the site of daily experiments in the fields, including biology, human biology, physics, astronomy and meteorology, conducted in the microgravity environment. The station provides a safe location for testing the efficient, reliable spacecraft systems that will be needed for long-term missions to the Moon and Mars.
most expensive projects International Space Center Top 10 Most Expensive Projects in The World
International Space Center
Do You have other larger projects than those projects?

Top 10 kitchen interiors

World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Light, Elegant, Refined : The space feels both elegant and casual, with rich ebony doors and the banquette’s tufting and nailhead detailing contrasting with more rustic touches, such as the pine table, antique chandelier with chipping paint, and backsplash of whitewashed brick. The banquette facing away from the kitchen area allows the room to function as a comfortable gathering space. The hardware is understated to maintain the living room-like quality.

World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Red, Modern, Mix : The daring color is balanced by simple white walls, black countertops, and hardwood floors. Stainless steel appliances give the kitchen a modern air, while the chandelier and the wood table and stools add more traditional touches.
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Contrast, Variety, Livability : The slate floors contrast with the dominant white throughout the rest of the kitchen. A variety of countertop materials―wood, marble, and stainless steel―adds interest without being too disjointed. The room encompasses both elegance and livability. A chandelier provides overhead lighting, and nooks behind the stove are a handy spot for small items. Interiors by: Heidi Friedler
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Coastal, Simple, Blue : The blue glass tile mimics the sea, and a wall of windows brings the outdoors in. This kitchen is all about making life easier―two sinks across from each other, a pot-filler faucet by the stove, and lots of counter space are a cook’s dream. The look is clean and simple―great for a beach house. Interiors by: Suzanne Kasler Interiors
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Rustic, Restored, Open : Its utilitarian nature is just right for a Texas farmhouse and its owner, who has a passion for cooking. With its salvaged 10-burner restaurant stove and rolling butcher-block table, this kitchen isn’t afraid of serious cooking. A low bar surrounds the work space so that everyone can enjoy the smells and sounds of dinner cooking. Interiors by: Homeowners Jack and Hedda Dowd and architectural designer Frank Clements.
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Views, Airy, Open : The light-filled space, which faces an adjacent garden area, seems more like a greenhouse―even the sink looks like it could be found in a garden shed. The flooring matches the cabinetry, which gives the kitchen continuity and doesn’t distract the eye from the view. Having more windows, rather than wall cabinets, keeps the room open and airy. Interiors by: Kathy Bennett, J. Hartley Interiors
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Stately, Understated, Combined : Minimalist cabinetry lets period details, such as the dentil molding and original mantel, stand out. The designer combined refined elements―such as an ancestral portrait and antique rug―with less serious accents―such as ’50s-style metal stools. Painted black muntins lend the large, uncovered windows a finished look. Interiors by: Mark Maresca, Maresca & Associates Architects
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Neat, Comfortable, Finished : Lighting from a variety of sources―ceiling fixtures, sconces, and lamps―contributes to the living room feel. The soft color palette, as well as upholstered seating that isn’t dwarfed by the size of the room, makes the large space warm and comfortable. A decorative accent hung above the stove provides a finishing touch. Interiors by: Gwyn Duggan Design Associates
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
Green, Natural, Refreshing : An antique green stain on the cabinetry and pine-paneled walls lightens up a room dominated by wood. Distressed copper on the island countertop, hood, and backsplash complements the natural palette. Clean-lined iron lanterns tie in with the color of the cabinet hardware. Interiors by: Elaine Griffin Interior Design
World Top 10 kitchen interior design
European, Rustic, Expansive : A terra-cotta wall color, mismatched barstools, distressed cabinetry, and limestone floors give the space an old-world, European look. High ceilings with exposed beams make the kitchen seem open and spacious. The oversize hood fits the scale of the room and displays a collection of gleaming copper cookware. Interiors by: Beverly Jacomini, Jacomini Miclette Design.

The luxriest train in the world


How to add videos to facebook


This article will tell you how to add videos to Facebook. Facebook is a social networking site that allows you to stay in touch with people that you otherwise might have trouble remaining close with.

Facebook is a great way to share your life with your friends and family. You can post updates, contact information, and best of all, videos and photographs of the important events of your life.

Difficulty: Easy
Instructions

Things You'll Need:
Internet Connection
Facebook Account
Video to upload
1

Go to www.facebook.com

Log in to your Facebook Account.

Click on your profile. Once you are in your profile, click on "view videos of me," which is on the left hand side of the screen underneath your profile picture.
2

Once you are brought to the next page, on the top left hand side of the screen, click "Add new video."

You will now have three options. You can either upload a video from your computer, send a video from your mobile phone, or record a video through Facebook.

If you choose the first option, all you have to do is click browse and locate the file on your computer. This is a very similar process to loading pictures onto Facebook.

If you want to send your video from your mobile phone, send an email to video@facebook.com and follow the directions given.

If you want to record a video right now, click on record and record your message.

No matter what you choose to do, all three methods are extremely simple and straight forward.
3

Sharing your videos is a great way to keep your friends and family up to date with your life.

Remember, Facebook has three requirements regarding videos and they are: * The video is under 1024 MB and under 20 minutes.
* The video was made by you or your friends.
* You or one of your friends appears in the video.

Wednesday, February 16, 2011

Firefox browser tips and tricks

Firefox is one of the favourite browser of many of us.We have been using it from years.Firefox 1.0 was released in November 2004.But still most of us are not aware of some of the coolest firefox tricks that will really enhance the browsing experience with this wonderful browser.I have collected my favourite and Coolest 7 Firefox tricks.
So here are the best 7 Tricks for firefox browser

  1. More space on the screen: Using smaller icons will get more space on the screen within the browser. To do this go to: View>Toolbars>Customize>Click on “Use small icons.
  1. Use keywords : You can make your search a bit faster by customizing the Firefox search bar.It is best to use for frequently visited sites, such as Wikipedia.com
Open wikipedia.com and Right click search bar of wikipedia. Now you will see a option to Add keyword for this search click on it and enter  an easy keyword that you can remember, for example, “wiki
firefox  7 Coolest Tricks for firefox browser
Now,When you want something on wikipedia, type Wiki in Firefox address Bar followed by your search term.
Like :wiki human history
When you press Enter key it will search wikipedia for human history and show you the results.
You can do this for any search box on any website.

  1. Keyboard shortcuts: Firefox has several shortcuts to make more practical use:
  • Spacebar (scroll down the page)
  • Shift + Spacebar (scroll up the page)
  • Ctrl + F (find words on the page)
  • Alt + N (find next word)
  • Ctrl + D (bookmark)
  • Ctrl + T (new tab)
  • Ctrl + K (go to the search bar)
  • Ctrl + L (go to address bar)
  • Ctrl + = (increase text size)
  • Ctrl + – (decrease text size)
  • Ctrl + W (close tab)
  • F5 (refresh)
  • Alt + Home (go to the home page)
  1. AutoComplete:We can access web pages just by putting the name without having to put  ”www” or “.com / net / org / ….” Just putting for example “pctipstricks” and pressing shift + Enter will add the “.net” at the end automatically.For”.com“  press Ctrl + Enter for “.Org” press Ctrl + Shift + Enter.

  1. Navigation between tabs, you can also use the Keyboard keys to navigate between tabs.
  • Ctrl + Tab (move tab)
  • Ctrl + Shft + Tab (back tab)
  • Ctrl +1-9 (skip to the tab number x)

  1. Mouse Shortcuts: Besides keyboard shortcuts exist, there are also using the mouse:
  • Central-click on a link (open a new tab)
  • Shift + Wheel up (previous page)
  • Shift + Wheel down (next page)
  • Ctrl-Wheel up (decrease text size)
  • Ctrl-wheel down (increase text size)
  • Central-click on a tab (closes tab)

  1. Delete history items from the address bar: Just choose by selecting the page you want to delete and press the Delete button

How to improve your communication skills

Overcome hesitation by asking for "Ungettable" things at shops

If you are very sensitive or just a painful perfectionist, This exercise will set you free. Because of my huge ego, I had a "need to be right all the time" syndrome. Once I started this exercise, it was so revealing and relaxing. All you have to do is approach random people and ask for an opinion or visit shops and ask for things they wont have.

 Once I was feeling really stuck while solving a problem and wanted to  break away from the feeling. This is what I did to feel unstuck. I went to a Food Joint and asked for a Haircut! My heart was beating fast and I was sweating.
The waiter was confused so I asked again " Can I get a haircut?"
He said "Sorry we don't do that here".
 I said "ok. Thank you" and ran away. It was fun.

Now many of my colleagues and friends do it when they find themselves stuck in a situation. I don't know why it works. But I can tell you, it does wonders in improving your communication skills.


Learn a New Language.

Language is one of the greatest gifts to humans and probably all our progress is due to the fact we can speak and understand each other.The unfortunate side effect is that people are getting into more and more linguistically created barriers. It is not as complicated as it sounds

An example can help you.

You ask some one "Do you like reading books?" and they may say "No, I have never liked reading books". So this person is binding himself to not liking books for ever. How could he have broken this spell?

Well by saying something like "no, till now, I have not liked reading books."

That gives him a chance to like books at least in future. To come out of such binding linguistics, I suggest you learn new language.
It will refresh your existing language connections in the brain and improve communication skills in many ways.
Something like deleting the temporary internet files and refreshing the browser page for faster access to the web pages.

The Rewrite Rewire Effect

Language is just like your Face. It Expresses your emotion. We all get used to seeing different expressions on face but, forget to do so with our language. This exercise will go a long way in developing flexibility of language and develop your communication.

Take a 500 word article and rewrite it to express different emotions i.e. the whole article should reflect only one emotion. The more you can express with lesser words, the better. The idea is to make you juggle your language on demand. In turn this will flex up your brain and fire your imagination.


The Left and Right Co-ordination Exercise

Do the left and right coordination exercise to activate your creative abilities by making use of your non dominant hand.

Principle: The Creative functions are controlled by Right Half of your Brain. Right Brain also controls the left part of your Body. When you want to make use of the best of both worlds and when you want to improve communication skills, keep them synchronized.

Ninety percent of population is Right Handed and do not use their Left hand as much. Use your Left hand to do some of the basic things like Brushing your teeth and Eating. Engage your left hand in skillful work. This will start to activate your Right Brain functions  .

As you become comfortable with the simple activities, take it to the next level by  writing with Left hand. These activities will sufficiently increase the dormant power of your Right Brain. If you are left handed, do the same with right hand. The exercises are given in the order of difficulty. Feel free to tear it apart and do it any way you want. There are no rules for creativity.

The aim of these activities is to improve communication skills by improving your right-left brain synchronization.

Bottom line: Do things differently. it will improve your communication skills

1. Brush your teeth with Left Hand
2. Use only Left hand to Eat Food, but make sure you wash it thoroughly before you eat :-)
3. Draw with your Left hand.
4. Start mirror writing with right hand
5. Learn to write with left hand
6. Learn to write with left hand and right hand simultaneously

There is a lot more you can do. Let your creativity run and you will come up with some new ideas to take your communication to a whole new level!. To improve communication skills constantly is like sharpening your sword

How to know the senders original IP address by using an email

So you'd like to to find out just who is sending those email love letters, determine the sender of a blackmail message, or just root out the source of a virus emailed to you. There are indeed many such situations where you would like to know who sent a particular email message to you. This article will teach you how to use "Email Headers" to backtrack and find the original sender's IP address. Don't worry, it's not rocket science. If it were, SPAM would still only be canned meat and an amusing Monty Python skit!

Theory...

     Email messages, as in the case of their non-electronic cousins, have "envelopes" of a sort. In the case of email the envelope is composed of a series of "Headers". These are just a series of lines of characters which precede the actual email message. Email programs such as Outlook do not normally display these Headers when displaying a message. From these Headers however, the email program is able to extract important information about the message, such as the message encoding method, the creation date, the message subject, the sender and receiver, etc.
     Moreover, just as a postal envelope contains an address, a return address and the cancellation stamp of the post office of origin, an email message in these "Headers" carries with it a history of its journey to your email inbox. Because of this, it's possible to determine the original IP address of the sender.
     Since email programs do not normally display these Headers, we must first learn how to display them. Depending on the program, this is done in a variety of ways. The following sequence details the way to do this using the Windows default email program, "Outlook Express".
First, select "Properties" from the "File" Menu, or just press ALT+Enter. Next, select the "Details" tab.
Open Outlook Express menu to see email headers
Open Outlook Express menu to see email headers
Show email headers in Outlook Express
Headers in Outlook Express
     Here's how to view the Headers in the Microsoft Office version of Outlook:

  • Open a message.
  • On the View menu, click Options.
    Note:If you do not see the Options command, make sure you click View on the toolbar in an open message window. The View menu on the standard Outlook toolbar does not have the Options command.
  • The Header information appears under the Delivery options in the Internet Headers box.
Tracing headers in MS Office Outlook
Headers in MS Office
     See how to show email headers in Yahoo, HotMail, Gmail, and AOL web mail.
     As you can see on these pictures, a Header consists of two sections separated by a colon ":". The first part is the Header's name. The second is the Header's data. In the case of postal mail, in principle, it is possible to write any kind of information (c/o, suite or apartment number, etc.) into the address information. Similarly email Headers can include any kind of information also. Usually however, an email Header will contain at least the following basic Header information:
Header Name
Header Data
Sample
To: The name and email address of the recipient To: "John Doe" <JohnDoe@hotmail.com>
From: The name and email address of the sender From: "Alice Smith"<alice123@aol.com>
Date: Date the message was created Date: 1 Nov 2004 22:49:20 -0000
Subject: The subject of the message which follows the Headers Subject: How are you?
Return-Path: The email address for responding to the message Return-Path: <alice.smith@anydomain.com>
Received: Delivery stamp Received: from [67.66.123.205]
     by web41013.mail.yahoo.com via HTTP; Sun, 25 Apr 2004 23:13:34 PDT
     In some cases, a number of these Headers may not be necessary.
     To determine the address of origin, special attention must be paid to the 'Received:' Headers. These Headers are selected on our screenshot illustration. 'Received' Headers have the following format:
  Received: from [computer name and/or IP address from sender]
         by [server name] (maybe Internet protocol too); date.

Sample:
   Received: from [67.66.123.205]
         by web41013.mail.yahoo.com via HTTP; Sun, 25 Apr 2004 23:13:34 PDT

      Briefly this means that the server web41013.mail.yahoo.com received the message from the IP address 67.66.123.205 on the 25th of April 2004, at 11:13:34 pm PDT via the HTTP protocol (i.e. through the web).
     So, we have observed, it is from the 'Received' Header that we retrieve the IP address or domain name. Using this IP address, Active Whoisis able to look up additional information such as associated postal and email addresses. You can easily select and copy the IP address from the Outlook Internet Headers box by using CTRL-C to place it on the clipboard.
     We are faced with an additional problem however. Email messages frequently contain more than one 'Received' Headers. How can we know which of these several Headers contains the originating IP address belonging to the sender? 'Received' Headers are appended to the front of the email message as it travels through the internet to your email inbox. The flow diagram below will show you how these 'Received' Headers are appended to the message as we travel backwards from the receiver to the sender:
email receiver      The Recipient's mailbox receives his message from his POP3 or webmail server. No new 'Received' Header is added at this stage.
Headers from the top of Headers sequence:
email server      The Recipient's email server (POP3, Yahoo, Hotmail, etc.) receives the email message from the original sender's server. (e.g. bay15.hotmail.msn.com)
  • A 'Received: from [sender mail server] by [recipient mail server]' field is appended to the top of the current sequence of Header strings.
  • Any previous 'Received' Headers will appear below this new one .
  • The newest 'Received:' Header at the top of the sequence of Headers now contains the IP address belonging to the email server of the sender; (e.g. Hotmail.com) It is not the true IP address of the sender himself.
Received: from bay15.hotmail.com (HELO hotmail.com) (65.54.185.39)
     by mail2.aol.com with SMTP; 30 Sep 2004 02:27:02 -0000
arrow down
email server      The sender's email server receives an email message from the sender's computer.
  • The first 'Received' Header containing the true IP address of the sender(e.g. 203.172.49.180), is appended to the message, appearing now at the very top of the sequence of Headers.
  • As the message travels over the Internet, new 'Received' fields will be appended to the top of the sequence of Headers. This means that the sender's actual IP address will always be in the very bottommost "Received:" Header.
Received: from 203.172.49.180 by bay15.hotmail.msn.com with HTTP;
     Thu, 30 Sep 2004 02:26:37 GMT
arrow down
email sender      The Sender sends an email message to his own email server to begin its journey to the receiver. A common Headers strings is created. From: "John Doe" <JohnDoe@hotmail.com>
To: "Alice Smith"<alice123@aol.com>
Subject: Nice meeting!
Date: Thu, 30 Sep 2004 02:26:37 +0000
     There are other possible variations in email routing. Your Email Service Provider (or the provider of the sender) may use several 'pass-through' email servers and these servers can add several 'Received' Headers. Also, if you and the sender use the same server, the message will have only one 'Received' Header.

Practice... or tips for traps

     Unfortunately there are those who for various reasons want to conceal their IP address from the message receiver. About 95% of Internet email is composed of spam, viruses and other types of illicit material. Most spammers use clever tricks to hide their true IP address. They can, for example, place fake 'Received' headers into the email headers. They might look something like the following:
Received: from %RNDUCCHAR1524 (j236.128.26.76.%RNDLCCHAR15357.ti.yahoo.com 96.208.178.254)
     by mail08.t.yahoo.com (47.1.777akv719/%RNDDIGIT12.4.50) with SMTP id fwf54N4Wnto%RNDDIGIT15;
     Wed, 06 Oct 2004 09:22:39 +0500
     In this example, symbols such as %RNDDIGIT12 or %RNDLCCHAR15357 seem like instructions to a mass-mailer application to insert RaNDom CHARacters or DIGITS to confuse you as well as your anti-spam filter. In this case, the true sender IP could be in the first 'Received' Header, that is, the one that was inserted by your email service provider's email server, because most spammers send their messages directly to your mailbox without using any intermediate servers. In this case only one of the 'received' Headers can be the one we're looking for. Once we find it, we can conclude that all of the others are fake.
     We may safely conclude that since there are often several 'Received' headers in an email message, servers deliver email using a 'chained' process. For that reason the sender indicated in the current 'Received' Header should always correspond directly to the server indicated in the previous Received' Header!
     It is also useful to check the DNS of senders by using Active Whois. 'Received:' Headers with random domain names will never resolve to random IP addresses.
     While viruses have not yet attained this level of deviousness, you can easily retrieve the IP address administrator email from Active Whois and quickly stem a new virus outbreak by warning the administrator that someone sent numerous viruses to you using his server.
Some additional facts in conclusion:
     There is a useful Header: 'X-Mailer' that not only specifies the email program of the sender, but allows you to indicate what message was originally sent by the email bot, and whether this Header is currently missing from the message.
     The email address of sender can be easily faked. The SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) by which email is handled, allows this deception because it doesn't verify all Headers such as the 'From' Header that contains email address of sender.

A new device for 100% humidification of inspired air

Introduction:
Devices for active humidification of the inspired air in mechanically ventilated patients cause water condensation in the ventilator tubing, which may become contaminated or interfere with the function of the ventilator. The present study describes and tests the performance of a new humidifier, which is designed to eliminate water condensation.
Objectives:
To test the performance of the new humidifier at different ventilator settings in a lung model, and to compare this new humidifier with a conventional active humidifier in ventilator-treated critically ill patients.
Materials and methods:
The humidifier (Humid-Heat; Louis Gibeck AB, Upplands Väsby, Sweden) consists of a supply unit with a microprocessor and a water pump, and a humidification device, which is placed between the Y-piece and the endotracheal tube. The humidification device is based on a hygroscopic heat-moisture exchanger (HME), which absorbs the expired heat and moisture and releases it into the inspired gas. External heat and water are then added to the patient side of the HME, so the inspired gas should reach 100% humidity at 37°C (44 mg H2O/l air). The external water is delivered to the humidification device via a pump onto a wick and then evaporated into the inspired air by an electrical heater. The microprocessor controls the water pump and the heater by an algorithm using the minute ventilation (which is fed into the microprocessor) and the airway temperature measured by a sensor mounted in the flex-tube on the patient side of the humidification device.
The performance characteristics were tested in a lung model ventilated with a constant flow (inspiratory:expiratory ratio 1:2, rate 12–20 breaths/min and a minute ventilation of 3–25 l/min) or with a decelerating flow (inspiratory:expiratory ratio 1:2, rate 12–15 breaths/min and a minute ventilation of 4.7–16.4 l/min). The device was also tested prospectively and in a randomized order compared with a conventional active humidifier (Fisher & Paykel MR730, Auckland, New Zealand) in eight mechanically ventilated, endotracheally intubated patients in the intensive care unit. The test period with each device was 24 h. The amount of fluid consumed and the amount of water in the water traps were measured. The number of times that the water traps were emptied, changes of machine filters, the suctions and quality of secretions, nebulizations, and the amount of saline instillations and endotracheal tube obstruction were recorded. In order to evaluate increased expiratory resistance due to the device, the airway pressure was measured at the end of a prolonged end-expiratory pause at 1 h of use and at the end of the test, and was compared with the corresponding pressure before the experiment. The body temperature of the patient was measured before and after the test of each device.
Results:
Both with constant flow and decelerating flow, the Humid-Heat gave an absolute humidity of 41–44 mgH2O/l at 37°C, with the lower level at the highest ventilation. In the patients, both Humid-Heat and the conventional active humidifier (MR730) maintained temperatures, indicating that they provided the intended heat and moisture to the inspired air. With both devices, the body temperature was maintained during the test period. There was no difference in the amount of secretions, the quality of the secretions and the frequency of suctions, saline instillations or nebulizations between the test periods with the two devices. There was no endotracheal tube obstruction, and after 1 h of use and at the end of the test no increased airway resistance was found with either device. When the MR730 was used, however, the water traps needed to be emptied six to 14 (mean eight) times (total amount of fluid in the traps was 100–300 ml) and the machine filters were changed two to six (mean four) times due to an excessive amount of condensed water with flow obstruction. No condensation of water was found in the tubing with the Humid-Heat. The water consumption was 23–65 ml/h (mean 30 ml/h) with the MR730 and 4–8 ml/h (mean 6 ml/h) with the Humid-Heat (P < 0.0008). The same relations were found when the water consumption was corrected for differences in minute ventilation.
Discussion:
The new humidifier, the Humid-Heat, gave an absolute humidity of 41–44 mg/l at 37°C in the bench tests. The tests in ventilated patients showed that the device was well tolerated and that condensation in the tubing was eliminated. There was no need to empty water traps. The test period was too short to evaluate whether the new device had any other advantages or disadvantages compared with conventional humidifiers.

Saturday, February 12, 2011

How does cordless phones work and their related websites

Anatomy of a Cordless Telephone

To illustrate the parts of a cordless telephone, we will show you the inside of this one from General Electric (GE). It was made in 1993 and operated in the 43-50 MHz range.
phone
GE cordless phone, including handset and base unit
As mentioned above, all cordless phones have a base and a handset. Let's look at these parts individually.
Base
The base unit of the cordless phone is plugged into the telephone jack on your wall.


Base unit components
If you open up the base and expose the circuit board, you see several components that carry out the functions of the base:
  • phone line interface - receives and sends telephone signals through the phone line
  • radio
    • amplifies signals to and from phone-line interface, user controls and speaker phone (if present)
    • broadcasts and receives radio signals to and from the handset
  • power - supplies low voltage power to the circuits and recharges the battery of the handset


Circuit board in the base of the GE cordless phone
Phone Line Interface
Phone line interface components do two things. First, they send the ringer signal to the bell (if it's on the base) or to the radio components for broadcast to the handset. This lets you know that you have an incoming call. Second, they receive and send small changes in the phone line's electrical current to and from the radio components of the base. When you talk, you cause small changes in the electrical current of the phone line, and these changes get sent to your caller. The same happens when the caller talks to you.
Radio Components
The radio components receive the electrical signals from the phone line interface and user controls (keypads, buttons). The radio components convert the signals to radio waves and broadcast them via the antenna. Radio components use quartz crystals to set the radio frequencies for sending and receiving. There are two quartz crystals, one for sending signals and one for receiving signals. Remember that the base and handset operate on a frequency pair that allows you to talk and listen at the same time (duplex). The radio components include an audio amplifier that increases the strength of the incoming electrical signals.
Power Components
A DC power cube transformer supplies the low voltage required by the electrical components on the circuit board. The power components on the circuit board work with the power cube to supply electrical current to re-charge the battery of the handset.
In addition to the above components, some bases also have audio amplifiers to drive speakers for speaker phone features, keypads for dialing, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for caller ID, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for power/charging indicators, and solid state memory for answering machine or call-back features.

Handset
You can carry the handset with you throughout the house or outside within the range of the base transmitter. The handset has all of the equipment of a standard telephone (speaker, microphone, dialing keypad), plus the equipment of an FM radio transmitter/receiver.


Block diagram of handset components
When you open up the handset, you see these components:
  • speaker - converts electrical signals into the sound that you hear
  • microphone - picks up your voice and changes it to electrical signals
  • keypad - input for dialing
  • buzzer or ringer - lets you know that you have an incoming call
  • radio components
    • amplify electrical signals to and from microphone and speakers
    • send and receive FM radio frequencies
  • LCD or LED displays - indicator lights
  • re-chargeable battery - supplies electrical power to handset


Parts of the GE cordless phone's handset, showing the fronts of the circuit boards


Parts of the GE cordless phone's handset, showing the backs of the circuit boards, the speaker, microphone, ringer and battery
Speaker
The speaker receives the electrical signals from the audio amplifier in the radio components and converts them into sound. When you remove the cover from the speaker, you see a large round permanent magnet with a hole in the middle and a deep groove surrounding the hole. Within this deep groove is a coil of fine copper wire that is attached to a thin plastic membrane. The plastic membrane covers the magnet and coil.


Close-up view of the speaker in the GE cordless telephone handset


Close-up of the speaker with the top removed


Close-up of the speaker with the plastic membrane and attached coil lifted out. The large metal disc is the magnet.


Close-up of the speaker's plastic membrane with attached wire coil
To hear sounds, the following events happen:
  1. Electrical signals come from the radio components.
  2. The electrical signals travel in the coil of copper wire.
  3. The electrical signals induce magnetic currents in the coil of wire, thereby making it an electromagnet.
  4. The electromagnetic coil moves in and out of the groove within the permanent magnet.
  5. The coil moves the attached plastic membrane in and out at the same frequencies as the changes in electric currents.
  6. The movements of the membrane move air at the same frequencies, thereby creating sound waves that you can hear.
Microphone
The microphone changes the sound waves from your voice into electrical signals that are sent to the audio amplifier of the radio components. A microphone is essentially a speaker that works in reverse. When sound waves from your voice move the membrane, they make tiny electric currents either by moving a coil of wire within a magnet or by compressing the membrane against carbon dust (see How do microphones work? for details).


Close-up of handset's keypad circuit board with attached microphone and buzzer
Keypad
The keypad allows you to dial a number. It transfers the pressure from your fingertip on the appropriate key into an electrical signal that it sends to the radio components. Below the rubber keypad is a circuit board with black conductive material under each button (shown above). The keypad works like a remote control. When you press a button, it makes a contact with the black material and changes its electrical conductance. The conductance sends an electrical signal to the radio components indicating that you have selected that number.
Buzzer or Ringer
When the radio components of the handset receive the ringer signal from the base, they send electrical signals to the buzzer. The buzzer changes those electrical signals into sound much like the speaker does. You hear the buzzer sound and know that someone is calling you. In some phones, the speaker is used to make the ringer sound and there is no need for a separate ringer.
Duplex Example
Base:
  • 44.32 MHz transmitter
  • 49.28 MHz receiver
Handset:
  • 49.28 MHz transmitter
  • 44.32 MHz receiver
Radio Components
The radio components of the handset are like those of the base -- they convert electrical signals from the microphone into FM radio signals and broadcast them at the same frequency as the receiving crystal of the base unit. The radio components also receive radio signals at the same frequency as the broadcasting crystal from the base, convert them to electrical signals and send them to the speaker and/or buzzer (ringer).
Remember that the base and handset operate on a duplex frequency pair that allows you to talk and listen at the same time.
LCD or LED Displays
Most handsets have one or more light-emitting diodes (LED) that indicate various things, such as when the phone has an open line or when the battery is low.


LED indicator light on the handset of the GE cordless phone
Some handsets have an LCD that can display numbers for caller ID features, similar to a cell phone. The LCD may be reflective or backlit so that you can see it when the room light is low.
Battery
The handset's battery supplies the power for all of the electrical components in the handset. All cordless phone handsets have a rechargeable battery (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride or lithium). When the battery runs low, an indicator light on the handset usually lights up or flashes. In some phones, a "beeping" sound may also indicate a low battery. You then recharge the battery on the base of the cordless phone.
The GE cordless phone that we dissected was from 1993. Modern cordless phones have the same functions and much of the same hardware. However, many of the electronic circuits that were once achieved with transistors, resistors and capacitors have been replaced with integrated circuits. This advancement allows the handset to be either smaller with the same functions or the same size with more functions.
In summary, a cordless phone is basically a combination of a telephone and an FM radio transmitter/receiver. Because it is a radio transmitter, it broadcasts signals over the open airways rather than specifically between the base and handset.


Many cordless phone conversations can be easily picked up by radio scanners.
Because of this open broadcast, It is possible for other people to listen to your phone conversation by using a radio scanner. So an important issue and feature to look for in a cordless phone is security -- DSS offers the best protection against eavesdropping.

Features

Cordless phones have many of the same features as standard telephones, and there are many models, offering lots of different features.
Major Features
Remember that a cordless telephone is a combination of a telephone and a radio transmitter/receiver. Because it is a radio transmitter/receiver, you have the following issues that you do not have on a standard cord phone:
  • range
  • sound quality
  • security
The range is the distance that the handset can be from the base. The sound quality can be affected by the distance, the way the information in the radio signal is transmitted, and interfering structures such as walls and appliances. Security is an issue because the radio signals from both handset and receiver go over the open airways, where they can be picked up by other devices (other cordless phones, baby monitors, radio scanners).
The above issues relate to the following features of your cordless phone:
Frequency
Because your cordless phone is a radio transmitter/receiver, it operates on various radio frequencies, which are set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as with any other radio. Cordless phones operate over three major frequency bands (base and receiver use two closely related but separate frequencies within the band so that you can talk and listen at the same time):
  • 43-50 MHz
  • 900 MHz
  • 2.4 GHz
  • 5.8 GHz
The 43-50 MHz band was common to early cordless telephones and is still available in low-cost models. Because of the low frequency, these phones have short ranges (about 1,000 ft / 330 m) and poorer sound quality (due to interference from structures and appliances). The 43-50 MHz phone signals can also be picked up easily on radio scanners and nearby baby monitors.
The 900 MHz band (actually 900-928 MHz) is the most common frequency for cordless phones today. The higher frequency gives it a greater range (5,000 to 7,000 ft / 1,500 to 2,100 m) and better sound quality. However, 900 MHz signals can be picked up easily by most commercially available radio scanners.
In 1998, the FCC opened up the 2.4 GHz range for cordless phone use. A 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz cordless phone can operate over a greater distance and is above the frequencies that can be picked up by most commercially available radio scanners; therefore, it is more secure than lower frequency models.
Analog vs. Digital
Analog technology is common in cordless telephones, especially in inexpensive models. Analog signals tend to be more noisy, or prone to interference with respect to sound quality. In addition, analog signals are easily picked up and interpreted by radio scanners.
In contrast, digital technology, like that found in a CD, allows the phone signals to sound clearer. Furthermore, digital signals are more secure. In 1995, digital spread spectrum (DSS) was introduced for cordless phones. DSS spread the digital information in pieces over several frequencies between the receiver and the base, thereby making it almost impossible to eavesdrop on cordless phone conversations.
Channels
Each frequency band (43-50 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz) can be subdivided into different increments or channels. For example, on some models, when you're talking on your 900 MHz phone, the base searches for a pair of frequencies (channels) within that range, that is not already in use, in order to talk to the handset. So, if the base is capable of searching more increments, it can more easily find a frequency pair that is clear from interference, providing better sound quality. The number of cordless phone channels can vary as follows:
  • 10 to 25 channels - 43-50 MHz phones, some inexpensive 900 MHz phones
  • 20 to 60 channels - most 900 MHz phones
  • 50 to 100 channels - high-end 900 MHz and 2.4/5.8 GHz phones

    When You Shop

    Popular Cordless Telephones
    Here are some of the best-selling cordless telephone models listed for comparison.


    Panasonic KX TG2750S
    2.4 GHz with Call-waiting Caller ID

    AT&T 5840
    5.8GHz with DSS

    Panasonic KX-TG5050
    5.8 GHz with Caller ID

    Panasonic KX TG2730
    Multi-Talk 2.4GHz

    Look Out!
    When buying a cordless telephone, there are several things you should keep in mind to avoid buying one that won't meet all your needs. Here are some of the most important things to think about:
    Security, security, security!
    Because your cordless phone is a radio transmitter, it broadcasts signals over the open airways rather than specifically between the base and handset. Therefore, it is possible for other people to listen to your phone conversation by using a radio scanner. Digital phones are better than analog phones in this area, but DSS offers the best protection against eavesdropping. Low-end 43-50 MHz and 900 MHz analog phones are not secure. In fact, most baby monitors can pick up phone conversations from 43-50 MHz cordless phones. 2.4 GHz analog phones are rare (most 2.4 GHz phones are digital), but offer some degree of protection because most commercially available radio scanners do not extend into this radio frequency.
    If your cordless phone does not have DSS, then your conversation is about as private as the writing on the back of a postcard. Use care when divulging private information over a cordless phone.
    Think about the type of battery in your cordless phone!
    All cordless phone handsets have a rechargeable battery (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lithium). Nickel-cadmium batteries are subject to a memory effect, so it is best to let them drain entirely before recharging them on the base. Nickel-metal hydride and lithium batteries have no memory effect.