Saturday, April 30, 2011

Alkaline Earth Metals

The elements of Group 2, the Alkaline Earth Metals, are:

  symbol electron configuration
beryllium Be [He]2s2
magnesium Mg [Ne]3s2
calcium Ca [Ar]4s2
strontium Sr [Kr]5s2
barium Ba [Xe]6s2
radium Ra [Rn]7s2

The last element, radium, is radioactive and will not be considered here.
The Group 2 elements are all metals with a shiny, silvery-white colour.
General Reactivity
The alkaline earth metals are high in the reactivity series of metals, but not as high as the alkali metals of Group 1.
Occurrence and Extraction
These elements are all found in the Earth’s crust, but not in the elemental form as they are so reactive. Instead, they are widely distributed in rock structures. The main minerals in which magnesium is found are carnellite, magnesite and dolomite. Calcium is found in chalk, limestone, gypsum and anhydrite. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust, and calcium is the fifth.
Of the elements in this Group only magnesium is produced on a large scale. It is extracted from sea-water by the addition of calcium hydroxide, which precipitates out the less soluble magnesium hydroxide. This hydroxide is then converted to the chloride, which is electrolysed in a Downs cell to extract magnesium metal.
Physical Properties
The metals of Group 2 are harder and denser than sodium and potassium, and have higher melting points. These properties are due largely to the presence of two valence electrons on each atom, which leads to stronger metallic bonding than occurs in Group 1.
Three of these elements give characteristic colours when heated in a flame:

Mg brilliant white   Ca brick-red   Sr crimson   Ba apple green
Atomic and ionic radii increase smoothly down the Group. The ionic radii are all much smaller than the corresponding atomic radii. This is because the atom contains two electrons in an s level relatively far from the nucleus, and it is these electrons which are removed to form the ion. Remaining electrons are thus in levels closer to the nucleus, and in addition the increased effective nuclear charge attracts the electrons towards the nucleus and decreases the size of the ion.
Chemical Properties
The chemical properties of Group 2 elements are dominated by the strong reducing power of the metals. The elements become increasingly electropositive on descending the Group.
Once started, the reactions with oxygen and chlorine are vigorous:
2Mg(s) + O2(g) ® 2MgO(s)
Ca(s) + Cl2(g) ® CaCl2(s)
All the metals except beryllium form oxides in air at room temperature which dulls the surface of the metal. Barium is so reactive it is stored under oil.
All the metals except beryllium reduce water and dilute acids to hydrogen:
Mg(s) + 2H+(aq) ® Mg(aq) + H2(g)
Magnesium reacts only slowly with water unless the water is boiling, but calcium reacts rapidly even at room temperature, and forms a cloudy white suspension of sparingly soluble calcium hydroxide.
Calcium, strontium and barium can reduce hydrogen gas when heated, forming the hydride:
Ca(s) + H2(g) ® CaH2(s)
The hot metals are also sufficiently strong reducing agents to reduce nitrogen gas and form nitrides:
3Mg(s) + N2(g) ® Mg3N2(s)
Magnesium can reduce, and burn in, carbon dioxide:
2Mg(s) + CO2(g) ® 2MgO(s) + C(s)
This means that magnesium fires cannot be extinguished using carbon dioxide fire extinguishers.
The oxides of alkaline earth metals have the general formula MO and are basic. They are normally prepared by heating the hydroxide or carbonate to release carbon dioxide gas. They have high lattice enthalpies and melting points. Peroxides, MO2, are known for all these elements except beryllium, as the Be2+ cation is too small to accommodate the peroxide anion.
Calcium, strontium and barium oxides react with water to form hydroxides:
CaO(s) + H2O(l) ® Ca(OH)2(s)
Calcium hydroxide is known as slaked lime. It is sparingly soluble in water and the resulting mildly alkaline solution is known as lime water which is used to test for the acidic gas carbon dioxide.
The Group 2 halides are normally found in the hydrated form. They are all ionic except beryllium chloride. Anhydrous calcium chloride has such a strong affinity for water it is used as a drying agent.
Oxidation States and lonisation Energies
In all their compounds these metals have an oxidation number of +2 and, with few exceptions, their compounds are ionic. The reason for this can be seen by examination of the electron configuration, which always has two electrons in an outer quantum level. These electrons are relatively easy to remove, but removing the third electron is much more difficult, as it is close to the nucleus and in a filled quantum shell. This results in the formation of M2+. The ionisation energies reflect this electron arrangement. The first two ionisation energies are relatively low, and the third very much higher.
Industrial Information
Magnesium is the only Group 2 element used on a large scale. It is used in flares, tracer bullets and incendiary bombs as it burns with a brilliant white light. It is also alloyed with aluminium to produce a low-density, strong material used in aircraft. Magnesium oxide has such a high melting point it is used to line furnaces.
Further Information
For further information look up the individual elements.

  Atomic Number Relative Atomic Mass Melting Point/K Density/kg m-3
Be 4   9.012   1551   1847.7  
Mg 12   24.31   922   1738  
Ca 20   40.08   1112   1550  
Sr 38   87.62   1042   2540  
Ba 56   137.33   1002   3594  

Ionisation Energies/kJ mol-1

  1st 2nd 3rd
Be 899.4 1757.1 14848
Mg 737.7 1450.7 7732.6
Ca 589.7 1145 4910
Sr 549.5 1064.2 4210
Ba 502.8 965.1 3600

  Atomic Radius/nm Ionic Radius/nm (M2+) Standard Electrode Potentials/V
Be 0.113 0.034 -1.85
Mg 0.160 0.078 -2.36
Ca 0.197 0.106 -2.87
Sr 0.215 0.127 -2.89
Ba 0.217 0.143 -2.90


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Thursday, April 28, 2011

Millau Bridge

Cold Wars

Cold War: Postwar Estrangement

The Western democracies and the Soviet Union discussed the progress of World War II and the nature of the postwar settlement at conferences in Tehran (1943), Yalta (February 1945), and Potsdam (July-August 1945). After the war, disputes between the Soviet Union and the Western democracies, particularly over the Soviet takeover of East European states, led Winston Churchill to warn in 1946 that an "iron curtain" was descending through the middle of Europe. For his part, Joseph Stalin deepened the estrangement between the United States and the Soviet Union when he asserted in 1946 that World War II was an unavoidable and inevitable consequence of "capitalist imperialism" and implied that such a war might reoccur.
The Cold War was a period of East-West competition, tension, and conflict short of full-scale war, characterized by mutual perceptions of hostile intention between military-political alliances or blocs. There were real wars, sometimes called "proxy wars" because they were fought by Soviet allies rather than the USSR itself -- along with competition for influence in the Third World, and a major superpower arms race.
After Stalin's death, East-West relations went through phases of alternating relaxation and confrontation, including a cooperative phase during the 1960s and another, termed dtente, during the 1970s. A final phase during the late 1980s and early 1990s was hailed by President Mikhail Gorbachev, and especially by the president of the new post-Communist Russian republic, Boris Yeltsin, as well as by President George Bush, as beginning a partnership between the two states that could address many global problems.
Telegram to President Truman

Cold War: Soviet Perspectives

After World War II, Joseph Stalin saw the world as divided into two camps: imperialist and capitalist regimes on the one hand, and the Communist and progressive world on the other. In 1947, President Harry Truman also spoke of two diametrically opposed systems: one free, and the other bent on subjugating other nations.
After Stalin's death, Nikita Khrushchev stated in 1956 that imperialism and capitalism could coexist without war because the Communist system had become stronger. The Geneva Summit of 1955 among Britain, France, the Soviet Union, and the United States, and the Camp David Summit of 1959 between Eisenhower and Khrushchev raised hopes of a more cooperative spirit between East and West. In 1963 the United States and the Soviet Union signed some confidence-building agreements, and in 1967 President Lyndon Johnson met with Soviet Prime Minister Aleksei Kosygin in Glassboro, New Jersey. Interspersed with such moves toward cooperation, however, were hostile acts that threatened broader conflict, such as the Cuban missile crisis of October 1962 and the Soviet-led invasion of Czechoslovakia of 1968.
The long rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982) is now referred to in Russia as the "period of stagnation." But the Soviet stance toward the United States became less overtly hostile in the early 1970s. Negotiations between the United States and the Soviet Union resulted in summit meetings and the signing of strategic arms limitation agreements. Brezhnev proclaimed in 1973 that peaceful coexistence was the normal, permanent, and irreversible state of relations between imperialist and Communist countries, although he warned that conflict might continue in the Third World. In the late 1970s, growing internal repression and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan led to a renewal of Cold War hostility.
Soviet views of the United States changed once again after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in early 1985. Arms control negotiations were renewed, and President Reagan undertook a new series of summit meetings with Gorbachev that led to arms reductions and facilitated a growing sympathy even among Communist leaders for more cooperation and the rejection of a class-based, conflict-oriented view of the world.
With President Yeltsin's recognition of independence for the other republics of the former USSR and his launching of a full-scale economic reform program designed to create a market economy, Russia was pledged at last to overcoming both the imperial and the ideological legacies of the Soviet Union.
Hypermedia exhibit note: The following image is truncated in its original form for reasons unknown.
Exposing Imperialist Policies

Cold War: Cuban Missile Crisis

According to Nikita Khrushchev's memoirs, in May 1962 he conceived the idea of placing intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Cuba as a means of countering an emerging lead of the United States in developing and deploying strategic missiles. He also presented the scheme as a means of protecting Cuba from another United States-sponsored invasion, such as the failed attempt at the Bay of Pigs in 1961.
After obtaining Fidel Castro's approval, the Soviet Union worked quickly and secretly to build missile installations in Cuba. On October 16, President John Kennedy was shown reconnaissance photographs of Soviet missile installations under construction in Cuba. After seven days of guarded and intense debate in the United States administration, during which Soviet diplomats denied that installations for offensive missiles were being built in Cuba, President Kennedy, in a televised address on October 22, announced the discovery of the installations and proclaimed that any nuclear missile attack from Cuba would be regarded as an attack by the Soviet Union and would be responded to accordingly. He also imposed a naval quarantine on Cuba to prevent further Soviet shipments of offensive military weapons from arriving there.
During the crisis, the two sides exchanged many letters and other communications, both formal and "back channel." Khrushchev sent letters to Kennedy on October 23 and 24 indicating the deterrent nature of the missiles in Cuba and the peaceful intentions of the Soviet Union. On October 26, Khrushchev sent Kennedy a long rambling letter seemingly proposing that the missile installations would be dismantled and personnel removed in exchange for United States assurances that it or its proxies would not invade Cuba. On October 27, another letter to Kennedy arrived from Khrushchev, suggesting that missile installations in Cuba would be dismantled if the United States dismantled its missile installations in Turkey. The American administration decided to ignore this second letter and to accept the offer outlined in the letter of October 26. Khrushchev then announced on October 28 that he would dismantle the installations and return them to the Soviet Union, expressing his trust that the United States would not invade Cuba. Further negotiations were held to implement the October 28 agreement, including a United States demand that Soviet light bombers also be removed from Cuba, and to specify the exact form and conditions of United States assurances not to invade Cuba.
Khrushchev to John F. Kennedy

Sunday, April 24, 2011

How to Create Forms In HTML

The World's Most Awesome Natural Balancing Rocks

These geological formations known as balancing rocks may have taken millions of years to form and still being chiseled by erosion, to what are they today. Here is a list of these awesome natural balancing rocks from across the world.

It is a common knowledge that rocks are formed by erosion and harsh weather conditions.  Surprisingly, the results come in spectacular shapes and  for mankind to marvel. . Here is a list of these awesome natural balancing rocks from across the world.
Balanced Rock 

Balanced rock is one of the most popular rock formations at the Garden of the Gods Park in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Located at Pike’s Peak Region, this 700-ton huge boulder which seems ready to topple but surprisingly its narrow pedestal manage to balance the rock formation for thousands of years. However, its narrow base had to bolstered with concrete to prevent visitors from testing the balance against their strength.
El Torcal de Antequera

This spectacular karst rock formation is located in El Torcal Park Nature Reserve Antequera, Spain. Formed by erosion one hundred million years ago, the 17square km park is home to some of Europe’s unusual limestone landscapes. These amazing rock formations balancing rocks, towers, sculptures and gorges. The Natural Park Reserve was created in October 1978.
Chiricahua Balanced Rock

The 12,984 acres Chiricahua National Monument is located about 58 km of Willcox, Arizona. It is a popular tourist destination well-known for its  huge vertical rock formations including the 1,000 tons Balanced Rock, formed after a volcanic activity nearly 27 million years ago. The eruption produced ash and pumice deposits about 2,000 feet thick which eventually cooled off into rhyolitic tuffs (gray rock ). Then, erosion and corrosion began chiseling away at the rock to form massive stone columns, towering rock spires, craggy grottoes, and balanced rocks including the 1,000 tons Balanced Rock. The area was renamed on April 18, 1924.
Balancing Rock near Digby

World top costliest desserts

Desserts are meant to sweeten your mouth, but are they also meant to empty out your pockets?

  1. Strawberries Arnaud

  2. Price: $ 1.4 million Just like his other creations, Arnaud Casbarian has used such an extremely exquisite array of ingredients in this dish that it has become quite legendary. This amazing dessert features strawberries marinated in the finest port, served with fresh mint and cream. What really adds to the bill here is the additional 5 carat pink-diamond ring, once belonging to the British financier Sir Ernest Cassel, which is “served” fresh with the strawberries.
  3. The Fortress Stilt Fisherman Indulgence

    Price: $ 14,500
    The age-old tradition of stilt-fishing, carried out by Sri Lanka’s fishermen, is showcased in this marvelous dessert. This delicacy features an aquamarine gem placed on a hand-made chocolate fisherman’s stilt, apart from the real dessert, which is a mix of many exotic fruits. The dessert is served in a hand-made glass utensil whose price is not included. This dessert was created and debuted at the Wine3 Fisherman Stilt Restaurant, Sri Lanka.
  4. Macaroons Haute Couture

    Price: $ 7,414 onwards
    Macaroons – a layer of butter cream sandwiched between two meringue puffs – are as popular in France as chocolate chip cookies are in the US. Pastry chef Pierre Hermé has created a new type of macaroons that may not be as popular as the ordinary ones, mainly because of the expensive new price tag. Starting from $7,414, these tasty macaroons feature a variety of ingredients sandwiched between puffs made from chef Hermé’s special ingredients like “fleur de sel” and balsamic vinegar. The fillings range from peanut butter to chocolate with red wine, and the best part is that you can decide what to put in your macaroon. Of course, there are caveats as not all flavors go together.

The Biggest Prime Number Known To T he World

m39 The Prime Number 

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Nano Technology

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota
PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota
Function Medium Lift Launch System
Manufacturer ISRO
Country of origin  India
Height 44 metres (144 ft)
Diameter 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)
Mass 294,000 kilograms (650,000 lb)
Stages 4
Payload to
3,250 kilograms (7,200 lb)
Payload to
1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb)[1]
Payload to
1,060 kilograms (2,300 lb)[1]
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites Sriharikota
Total launches 17
PSLV: 10
Successes 15
Failures 1 (PSLV)
Partial failures 1 (PSLV)
Maiden flight PSLV: 20 September 1993
PSLV-CA: 23 April 2007
PSLV-XL: 22 October 2008
Notable payloads Chandrayaan-1
Boosters (Stage 0)
№ boosters 6
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 502.600 kN
Specific impulse 262 sec
Burn time 44 seconds
Fuel HTPB (solid)
First stage
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 4,860 kN
Specific impulse 269 sec
Burn time 105 seconds
Fuel HTPB (solid)
Second stage
Engines 1 Vikas (liquid)
Thrust 725 kN
Specific impulse 293 sec
Burn time 158 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Third stage
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 328 kN
Specific impulse 294 sec
Burn time 83 seconds
Fuel Solid
Fourth stage
Engines 2 liquid
Thrust 14 kN
Specific impulse 308 sec
Burn time 425 seconds
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: ध्रुवीय उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण यान), commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 41 satellites (19 Indian and 22 from other countries) into a variety of orbits to date.
PSLV costs 17 million USD flyaway cost for each launch.



[edit] Vehicle description

The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid-fuel rocket boosters in the world and carries 138 tonnes of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) bound propellant with a diameter of 2.8 m. The motor case is made of maraging steel. The booster develops a maximum thrust of about 4,430 kN. Six strap-on motors, four of which are ignited on the ground, augment the first stage thrust. Each of these solid propellant strap-on motors carries nine tonnes of HTPB propellant and produces 677 kN thrust. Pitch and yaw control of the PSLV during the thrust phase of the solid motor is achieved by injection of an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate in the nozzle to constitute Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System (SITVC). The injection is stored in two cylindrical aluminum tanks strapped to the solid rocket motor and pressurized with nitrogen. There are two additional small liquid engine control power plants in the first stage, the Roll Control Thrusters (RCT), fixed radially opposite one on each side, between the triplet set of strap-on boosters. RCT is used for roll control during the first stage and the SITVC in two strap-on motors is for roll control augmentation.
The second stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 tonnes (40 tonnes till C-5 mission) of liquid propellant – Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer. It generates a maximum thrust of 800 kN (724 till C-5 mission). Pitch & yaw control is obtained by hydraulically gimbaled engine (±4°) and two hot gas reaction control for roll.
The third stage uses 7 tonnes of HTPB-based solid propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 324 kN. It has a Kevlar-polyamide fiber case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flex-bearing-seal gimbaled nozzle (±2°) thrust-vector engine for pitch & yaw control. For roll control it uses the RCS (Reaction Control System) of fourth stage.
The fourth and the terminal stage of PSLV has a twin engine configuration using liquid propellant. With a propellant loading of 2 tonnes (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine as fuel + Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen as oxidiser), each of these engines generates a maximum thrust of 7.4 kN. Engine is gimbaled (±3°) for pitch, yaw & roll control and for control during the coast phase uses on-off RCS. PSLV-C4 used a new lightweight carbon composite payload adapter to enable a greater GTO payload capability.
PSLV is developed with a group of wide-range control units.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Pitch SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Yaw SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Roll RCT and SITVC in 2 PSOMs HRCM Hot Gas Reaction Control Motor PS4 RCS PS4 RCS

[edit] Development

PSLV is designed and developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The inertial systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram. The solid propellant motors are processed by Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, which also carries out launch operations.
After some delays, the PSLV had its first launch on 20 September 1993. Although all main engines performed as expected, an altitude control problem was reported in the second and third stages. After this initial setback, ISRO met complete success with the third developmental launch in 1996. Further successful launches followed in 1997, 1999, and 2001.
PSLV continues to be the work horse of Indian satellite launches, especially for LEO satellites and the Chandrayaan Projects. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight.

[edit] Variants

ISRO has envisaged a number of variants of PSLV to cater to different mission requirements. These configurations provide wide variations in payload capabilities ranging from 600 kg in LEO to 1900 kg in sun synchronous orbit.
PSLV (Operational)
The standard version of the PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately and six strap-on boosters. It currently has capability to launch 1,678 kg to 622 km into sun synchronous orbit.
PSLV-CA (Operational)
The PSLV-CA, CA meaning "Core Alone", model premiered on April 23, 2007. The CA model does not include the six strap-on boosters used by the PSLV standard variant. Two small roll control modules and two first stage motor control injection tanks were still attached to the side of the first stage.[2] The fourth stage of the CA variant has 400 kg less propellant when compared to its standard version.[2] It currently has capability to launch 1,100 kg to 622 km sun synchronous orbit.[3]
PSLV-XL (Operational)
PSLV-XL is the uprated version of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its standard configuration boosted by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters.[2] Weighing 320 tonnes at lift-off, the vehicle uses larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL) to achieve higher payload capability. PSOM-XL uses larger 13.5m, 12 tonnes of solid propellants instead of 9 tonnes used in the earlier configuration of PSLV.[4] On 29 December 2005, ISRO successfully tested the improved version of strap-on booster for the PSLV. The first version of PSLV-XL was the launch of Chandrayaan-1 by PSLV-C11. The payload capability for this variant is 1800 kg compared to 1600 kg for the other variants.[3] Future launches include the RISAT Radar Imaging Satellite.[5]
Variant↓ Launches↓ Successes↓ Failures↓ Partial failures↓ Remarks↓
PSLV (Standard) 10 8 1 1
PSLV-CA (Core Alone) 6 6 0 0 Launched 10 satellites in one go.
PSLV-XL (Extended) 1 1 0 0 Launched Chandrayaan I.
PSLV-HP (Under development / Proposed)
As reported on the website of The New Indian Express newspaper (April 26, 2007), PSLV project director N Narayanamoorthy spoke of another version being planned called the PSLV-HP, standing for ‘high performance.’ It will have improved strap-ons motors,[3] and the payload capability will be raised to 2000 kg.[3] The HP version will be used to launch a constellation of seven navigation satellites between 2010 and 2012. Among other things, the efficiency of the stage 4 engine will be improved in this version.
PSLV-3S (Under development / Proposed)
ISRO is also considering the development of a three-stage version of the rocket without six strap-on boosters (with the second stage of the four-stage version removed) which will be capable of placing 500 kg to LEO.[3][6]

[edit] Launch history

Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload Payload Mass Mission Status Note(s)
D1 PSLV 20 September 1993[7] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS 1E 846 kg[7] Failure First development flight.
Software error causes the vehicle to crash in to the Bay of Bengal 700 seconds after take off.
D2 PSLV 15 October 1994[8] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS P2 804 kg[8] Success First successful development flight.
D3 PSLV 21 March 1996[9] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS P3 920 kg[9] Success
C1 PSLV 29 September 1997[10] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS 1D 1,250 kg[10] Partial failure Sub-optimal injection of Satellite.
C2 PSLV 26 May 1999[11] Sriharikota FLP* India OceanSat 1
Germany DLR-Tubsat
South Korea KitSat 3
1,050 kg[11]
107 kg[11]
45 kg[11]
Success First successful commercial flight.
C3 PSLV 22 October 2001[12] Sriharikota FLP* India TES
Belgium Proba
Germany BIRD
1,108 kg[12]
94 kg[12]
92 kg[12]
Success Speculated as a Spy Satellite.[13]
C4 PSLV 12 September 2002[14] Sriharikota FLP* India METSAT 1 (Kalpana 1) 1,060 kg[14] Success First launch to Geostationary transfer orbit.[14]
C5 PSLV 17 October 2003[15] Sriharikota FLP* India ResourceSat 1 1,360 kg[15] Success
C6 PSLV 5 May 2005[16] Sriharikota SLP** India CartoSat 1
1560 kg[16]
42.5 kg[16]
C7 PSLV 10 January 2007[17] Sriharikota FLP* India CartoSat 2
India SRE
Indonesia LAPAN-TUBsat
Argentina PEHUENSAT-1
680 kg[17]
500 kg[17]
56 kg[17]
6 kg[17]
Success Used a device called 'Dual Launch Adapter' for the first time to launch four satellites.[18]
LAPAN-TUBsat is Indonesia’s first remote sensing satellite.
C8 PSLV-CA 23 April 2007[19] Sriharikota SLP** Italy AGILE
India AAM
352 kg[19]
185 kg[19]
Success First flight of the 'Core-Alone' version.
ISRO's first exclusively commercial launch.[20]
C10 PSLV-CA 21 January 2008[21] Sriharikota FLP* Israel TECSAR 295 kg[21] Success An Israeli reconnaissance satellite.[22]
C9 PSLV-CA 28 April 2008[23][24] Sriharikota SLP** India Cartosat-2A
Germany RUBIN-8
Canada CanX-6/NTS
Canada CanX-2
Japan Cute-1.7+APD II
Netherlands Delfi-C3
Japan SEEDS-2
Germany COMPASS-1
690 kg
83 kg
8 kg
6.5 kg
3.5 kg
3 kg
2.2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
0.75 kg
Success World Record for most satellites (10) launched in a single attempt.
C11 PSLV-XL 22 October 2008[25] Sriharikota SLP** India Chandrayaan I 1,380 kg[25] Success First flight of the PSLV-XL version.
India's first mission to the Moon.[26]
C12 PSLV-CA 20 April 2009[27] Sriharikota SLP** India RISAT-2
300 kg[27]
40 kg[27]
Success India's first all weather observation spy satellite.[28]
ANUSAT is the first satellite built by an Indian University.
C14 PSLV-CA 23 September 2009[29] Sriharikota FLP* India Oceansat-2
Luxembourg Rubin 9.1
Germany Rubin 9.2
Switzerland SwissCube-1
Germany BeeSat
Germany UWE-2
Turkey ITUpSAT1
960 kg[29]
8 kg[29]
8 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
Success Rubin 9.1 and 9.2 were non-separable payloads,[30] orbited attached to the vehicle's fourth stage.[31][32]

SwissCube-1[33] and ITUpSAT1[34] are Switzerland's and Turkey's first home-grown satellites launched into space.
C15 PSLV-CA July 12, 2010 [35] Sriharikota FLP* India Cartosat-2B
Algeria ALSAT-2A
Norway AISSat-1[36]
Switzerland TIsat-1[37][38]
690 kg [39]
117 kg[39]
6.5 kg[39]
1 kg
Success Main satellite Cartosat-2B and Algeria's ALSAT-2A along with AISSat-1, TIsat-1, and StudSat. TIsat-1 is the second ever Swiss satellite launched into Space. AISSat-1 and TIsat are part of NLS-6.[40][41]
C16 PSLV 20 April 2011[42] Sriharikota India ResourceSat-2
Singapore X-Sat
IndiaRussia YouthSat
1206 kg[42]
106 kg[42]
92 kg[42]
Success In the current flight, the standard version, with six solid strap-on booster motors strung around the first stage, was used.[42]
Planned launches
C17 PSLV 2011 Sriharikota IndiaGSAT-12[43]
C18 PSLV 2011 Sriharikota IndiaRISAT-1
C?? PSLV-?? 2011 Sriharikota India& France Megha-Tropiques IndiaSRMSAT

C?? PSLV-?? 2011 Sriharikota India Astrosat
'*'FLP - First Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre; **SLP - Second Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre