Saturday, February 12, 2011

How does cordless phones work and their related websites

Anatomy of a Cordless Telephone

To illustrate the parts of a cordless telephone, we will show you the inside of this one from General Electric (GE). It was made in 1993 and operated in the 43-50 MHz range.
GE cordless phone, including handset and base unit
As mentioned above, all cordless phones have a base and a handset. Let's look at these parts individually.
The base unit of the cordless phone is plugged into the telephone jack on your wall.

Base unit components
If you open up the base and expose the circuit board, you see several components that carry out the functions of the base:
  • phone line interface - receives and sends telephone signals through the phone line
  • radio
    • amplifies signals to and from phone-line interface, user controls and speaker phone (if present)
    • broadcasts and receives radio signals to and from the handset
  • power - supplies low voltage power to the circuits and recharges the battery of the handset

Circuit board in the base of the GE cordless phone
Phone Line Interface
Phone line interface components do two things. First, they send the ringer signal to the bell (if it's on the base) or to the radio components for broadcast to the handset. This lets you know that you have an incoming call. Second, they receive and send small changes in the phone line's electrical current to and from the radio components of the base. When you talk, you cause small changes in the electrical current of the phone line, and these changes get sent to your caller. The same happens when the caller talks to you.
Radio Components
The radio components receive the electrical signals from the phone line interface and user controls (keypads, buttons). The radio components convert the signals to radio waves and broadcast them via the antenna. Radio components use quartz crystals to set the radio frequencies for sending and receiving. There are two quartz crystals, one for sending signals and one for receiving signals. Remember that the base and handset operate on a frequency pair that allows you to talk and listen at the same time (duplex). The radio components include an audio amplifier that increases the strength of the incoming electrical signals.
Power Components
A DC power cube transformer supplies the low voltage required by the electrical components on the circuit board. The power components on the circuit board work with the power cube to supply electrical current to re-charge the battery of the handset.
In addition to the above components, some bases also have audio amplifiers to drive speakers for speaker phone features, keypads for dialing, liquid crystal displays (LCDs) for caller ID, light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for power/charging indicators, and solid state memory for answering machine or call-back features.

You can carry the handset with you throughout the house or outside within the range of the base transmitter. The handset has all of the equipment of a standard telephone (speaker, microphone, dialing keypad), plus the equipment of an FM radio transmitter/receiver.

Block diagram of handset components
When you open up the handset, you see these components:
  • speaker - converts electrical signals into the sound that you hear
  • microphone - picks up your voice and changes it to electrical signals
  • keypad - input for dialing
  • buzzer or ringer - lets you know that you have an incoming call
  • radio components
    • amplify electrical signals to and from microphone and speakers
    • send and receive FM radio frequencies
  • LCD or LED displays - indicator lights
  • re-chargeable battery - supplies electrical power to handset

Parts of the GE cordless phone's handset, showing the fronts of the circuit boards

Parts of the GE cordless phone's handset, showing the backs of the circuit boards, the speaker, microphone, ringer and battery
The speaker receives the electrical signals from the audio amplifier in the radio components and converts them into sound. When you remove the cover from the speaker, you see a large round permanent magnet with a hole in the middle and a deep groove surrounding the hole. Within this deep groove is a coil of fine copper wire that is attached to a thin plastic membrane. The plastic membrane covers the magnet and coil.

Close-up view of the speaker in the GE cordless telephone handset

Close-up of the speaker with the top removed

Close-up of the speaker with the plastic membrane and attached coil lifted out. The large metal disc is the magnet.

Close-up of the speaker's plastic membrane with attached wire coil
To hear sounds, the following events happen:
  1. Electrical signals come from the radio components.
  2. The electrical signals travel in the coil of copper wire.
  3. The electrical signals induce magnetic currents in the coil of wire, thereby making it an electromagnet.
  4. The electromagnetic coil moves in and out of the groove within the permanent magnet.
  5. The coil moves the attached plastic membrane in and out at the same frequencies as the changes in electric currents.
  6. The movements of the membrane move air at the same frequencies, thereby creating sound waves that you can hear.
The microphone changes the sound waves from your voice into electrical signals that are sent to the audio amplifier of the radio components. A microphone is essentially a speaker that works in reverse. When sound waves from your voice move the membrane, they make tiny electric currents either by moving a coil of wire within a magnet or by compressing the membrane against carbon dust (see How do microphones work? for details).

Close-up of handset's keypad circuit board with attached microphone and buzzer
The keypad allows you to dial a number. It transfers the pressure from your fingertip on the appropriate key into an electrical signal that it sends to the radio components. Below the rubber keypad is a circuit board with black conductive material under each button (shown above). The keypad works like a remote control. When you press a button, it makes a contact with the black material and changes its electrical conductance. The conductance sends an electrical signal to the radio components indicating that you have selected that number.
Buzzer or Ringer
When the radio components of the handset receive the ringer signal from the base, they send electrical signals to the buzzer. The buzzer changes those electrical signals into sound much like the speaker does. You hear the buzzer sound and know that someone is calling you. In some phones, the speaker is used to make the ringer sound and there is no need for a separate ringer.
Duplex Example
  • 44.32 MHz transmitter
  • 49.28 MHz receiver
  • 49.28 MHz transmitter
  • 44.32 MHz receiver
Radio Components
The radio components of the handset are like those of the base -- they convert electrical signals from the microphone into FM radio signals and broadcast them at the same frequency as the receiving crystal of the base unit. The radio components also receive radio signals at the same frequency as the broadcasting crystal from the base, convert them to electrical signals and send them to the speaker and/or buzzer (ringer).
Remember that the base and handset operate on a duplex frequency pair that allows you to talk and listen at the same time.
LCD or LED Displays
Most handsets have one or more light-emitting diodes (LED) that indicate various things, such as when the phone has an open line or when the battery is low.

LED indicator light on the handset of the GE cordless phone
Some handsets have an LCD that can display numbers for caller ID features, similar to a cell phone. The LCD may be reflective or backlit so that you can see it when the room light is low.
The handset's battery supplies the power for all of the electrical components in the handset. All cordless phone handsets have a rechargeable battery (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride or lithium). When the battery runs low, an indicator light on the handset usually lights up or flashes. In some phones, a "beeping" sound may also indicate a low battery. You then recharge the battery on the base of the cordless phone.
The GE cordless phone that we dissected was from 1993. Modern cordless phones have the same functions and much of the same hardware. However, many of the electronic circuits that were once achieved with transistors, resistors and capacitors have been replaced with integrated circuits. This advancement allows the handset to be either smaller with the same functions or the same size with more functions.
In summary, a cordless phone is basically a combination of a telephone and an FM radio transmitter/receiver. Because it is a radio transmitter, it broadcasts signals over the open airways rather than specifically between the base and handset.

Many cordless phone conversations can be easily picked up by radio scanners.
Because of this open broadcast, It is possible for other people to listen to your phone conversation by using a radio scanner. So an important issue and feature to look for in a cordless phone is security -- DSS offers the best protection against eavesdropping.


Cordless phones have many of the same features as standard telephones, and there are many models, offering lots of different features.
Major Features
Remember that a cordless telephone is a combination of a telephone and a radio transmitter/receiver. Because it is a radio transmitter/receiver, you have the following issues that you do not have on a standard cord phone:
  • range
  • sound quality
  • security
The range is the distance that the handset can be from the base. The sound quality can be affected by the distance, the way the information in the radio signal is transmitted, and interfering structures such as walls and appliances. Security is an issue because the radio signals from both handset and receiver go over the open airways, where they can be picked up by other devices (other cordless phones, baby monitors, radio scanners).
The above issues relate to the following features of your cordless phone:
Because your cordless phone is a radio transmitter/receiver, it operates on various radio frequencies, which are set by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) as with any other radio. Cordless phones operate over three major frequency bands (base and receiver use two closely related but separate frequencies within the band so that you can talk and listen at the same time):
  • 43-50 MHz
  • 900 MHz
  • 2.4 GHz
  • 5.8 GHz
The 43-50 MHz band was common to early cordless telephones and is still available in low-cost models. Because of the low frequency, these phones have short ranges (about 1,000 ft / 330 m) and poorer sound quality (due to interference from structures and appliances). The 43-50 MHz phone signals can also be picked up easily on radio scanners and nearby baby monitors.
The 900 MHz band (actually 900-928 MHz) is the most common frequency for cordless phones today. The higher frequency gives it a greater range (5,000 to 7,000 ft / 1,500 to 2,100 m) and better sound quality. However, 900 MHz signals can be picked up easily by most commercially available radio scanners.
In 1998, the FCC opened up the 2.4 GHz range for cordless phone use. A 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz cordless phone can operate over a greater distance and is above the frequencies that can be picked up by most commercially available radio scanners; therefore, it is more secure than lower frequency models.
Analog vs. Digital
Analog technology is common in cordless telephones, especially in inexpensive models. Analog signals tend to be more noisy, or prone to interference with respect to sound quality. In addition, analog signals are easily picked up and interpreted by radio scanners.
In contrast, digital technology, like that found in a CD, allows the phone signals to sound clearer. Furthermore, digital signals are more secure. In 1995, digital spread spectrum (DSS) was introduced for cordless phones. DSS spread the digital information in pieces over several frequencies between the receiver and the base, thereby making it almost impossible to eavesdrop on cordless phone conversations.
Each frequency band (43-50 MHz, 900 MHz, 2.4 GHz or 5.8 GHz) can be subdivided into different increments or channels. For example, on some models, when you're talking on your 900 MHz phone, the base searches for a pair of frequencies (channels) within that range, that is not already in use, in order to talk to the handset. So, if the base is capable of searching more increments, it can more easily find a frequency pair that is clear from interference, providing better sound quality. The number of cordless phone channels can vary as follows:
  • 10 to 25 channels - 43-50 MHz phones, some inexpensive 900 MHz phones
  • 20 to 60 channels - most 900 MHz phones
  • 50 to 100 channels - high-end 900 MHz and 2.4/5.8 GHz phones

    When You Shop

    Popular Cordless Telephones
    Here are some of the best-selling cordless telephone models listed for comparison.

    Panasonic KX TG2750S
    2.4 GHz with Call-waiting Caller ID

    AT&T 5840
    5.8GHz with DSS

    Panasonic KX-TG5050
    5.8 GHz with Caller ID

    Panasonic KX TG2730
    Multi-Talk 2.4GHz

    Look Out!
    When buying a cordless telephone, there are several things you should keep in mind to avoid buying one that won't meet all your needs. Here are some of the most important things to think about:
    Security, security, security!
    Because your cordless phone is a radio transmitter, it broadcasts signals over the open airways rather than specifically between the base and handset. Therefore, it is possible for other people to listen to your phone conversation by using a radio scanner. Digital phones are better than analog phones in this area, but DSS offers the best protection against eavesdropping. Low-end 43-50 MHz and 900 MHz analog phones are not secure. In fact, most baby monitors can pick up phone conversations from 43-50 MHz cordless phones. 2.4 GHz analog phones are rare (most 2.4 GHz phones are digital), but offer some degree of protection because most commercially available radio scanners do not extend into this radio frequency.
    If your cordless phone does not have DSS, then your conversation is about as private as the writing on the back of a postcard. Use care when divulging private information over a cordless phone.
    Think about the type of battery in your cordless phone!
    All cordless phone handsets have a rechargeable battery (nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, lithium). Nickel-cadmium batteries are subject to a memory effect, so it is best to let them drain entirely before recharging them on the base. Nickel-metal hydride and lithium batteries have no memory effect.

Tear Gas

CS gas is a non-lethal riot control agent. Tear gas is a chemical compound which, in humans, causes immediate tearing of the eyes, mild respiratory convultion, an increase in blood pressure and pulse, as well as the irritation of mucous membranes.
Tear gas is available in a number of different chemical formulations with effects ranging from mild tearing of the eyes to immediate vomiting and prostration. CS is often delivered in a fine powder via aerosol grenades. CS gas are usually used by police to disperse riots and demonstrations.
Formal Chemical Name (IUPAC)
ortho-chloro-benzal malonitrile

What is SAP ?

What is SAP?
  • The name SAP is acronym for Systems, Applications and Products in Data Processing.  SAP is an extremely complicated system where no one individual can understand all of it.
  • SAP runs on a fourth generation programming language language called Advance Business Application Programming (ABAP).  It have many of the features of other modern programming languages such as the familiar C, Visual Basic, and Power Builder.  Your programs name conventions begins with a letter yxxx or zxxx.
  • SAP graphical user interfaces (SAPGUI) runs on Windows / NT / Unix / AS400.  When you are using 3.x you can used the SAPGUI 4.x, there are no conflicts as the SAPGUI is basically a front end tools.
  • If you create dialog screen, remembers to tick Development Tools (utility programs for the Screen Painter) when you are installing SAPGUI 4.x.
  • In SAPGUI 4.x, you can configure whether to use the present 3.x screen design or the New 4.x Visual design (which is very graphical and computer resource hungry).
  • Disable the login image to reduce the memory usage. In transaction SM30, table SSM_CUST, create a new entries with Name HIDE_START_IMAGE and Value to be set YES.
  • SAP have move towards the Windows Explorer Screen Format (all the Menu on the left of your screen).
  • SAP is an enterprise resource planning (ERP) software product capable of integrating multiple business applications, with each application representing a specific business area.  These applications update and process transactions in real time mode.  It has the ability to be configured to meets the needs of the business.
  • SAP are categorized into 3 core functional areas:
    • Logistics
      • Sales and Distribution (SD)
      • Material Management (MM)
      • Warehouse Management (WM)
      • Production Planning (PP)
      • General Logistics (LO)
      • Quality Management (QM)
    • Financial
      • Financial Accounting (FI)
      • Controlling (CO)
      • Enterprise Controlling (EC)
      • Investment Management (IM)
      • Treasury (TR)
    • Human Resources
      • Personnel Administration (PA)
      • Personnel Development (PD)

Why do clothes look dark when they immersed in the water

An object made up of several layers interact differently with the light and then the overall perception of colour will be dependent on the overall nature of light received by the eyes from the object. If you have some cotton fabric there are indeed two such layers, one of the loose surface fibers and the second one of the actual surface of cloth. The upper layer doesn't absorb significantly waves of any particular wavelengths, they only scatter the light falling on them. When this scattered light adds up to the reflected light from the opaque object, the result is the perception of a lighter tint. When the layer is removed, like if the cloth is soaked in water, the color is perceived to be darker.

Two steps to verify the purity of honey

Fake and impure honeys have become commonplace in the market today, despite many people's preference for 100% bees' honey. The problem with this is, unfortunately, fake and impure honey can be passed off as pure very easily. When viewed on the shelf, it is very hard to pick out what is pure, and what is not. There are, however, a few ways to figure this out.
1. Check the label. You would be amazed at how many people neglect to look closely at the label of food products before buying them, and then are dismayed to find they bought something they really didn't want. Check around the brand name, and the ingredients list (if there is one) for a mention of additives. The company should be required to list them if you are shopping in certain countries. If there are no mentions of additives, buy the honey.
Taste the honey. If it seems off, and yet the label claims it is pure, there are a few simple tests you can run to check the purity of the honey.

  • The dissolving test.

    • Get a glass of water.And a tablespoon of honey are all you need for the first test.
    • Empty the honey into the water. If the honey is impure, it will dissolve in the water- the most common additive to honey is syrup of jaggery, which dissolves. If it is pure, the honey will stick together and sink as a solid lump to the bottom of the glass.
    • This test can also be completed by mixing equal parts honey and methylated spirits (denatured alcohol). Pure honey will settle to the bottom. Impure honey is more likely to remain dissolved and make the solution milky.
  • The flame test.

    • Get a lighter and a candle with a cotton wick. This test is better if you don't have as much honey to spare.
    • Dip the cotton wick of the candle into a bit of the honey, and shake off the excess.
    • Attempt to light the wick. If it burns, then it is completely pure honey. If it refuses to burn, then the presence of water is not allowing the wick to burn. (If there is only a very small amount of honey on the wick, though, it might still burn. It will produce a crackling sound, and it would be best to blow out the wick and try it again this time using more honey.)
  • The absorption test.

    • Pour a few drops of honey on blotting paper and observe whether or not it is absorbed. If it's absorbed, the honey's not pure.
    • If you don't have blotting paper, pour a little bit of honey on a white cloth, then wash the cloth. If there is any stain left by the honey, it is probably not pure.

How does adding salt ot the ice decrases its freezing point

Salt lowers the temperature at which water freezes and melts.  Pure water, 
H2O, freezes (and melts) at 0°C (32°F).  But the more "salt" (any elements 
or compounds carried by the water in solution, such as Na (sodium), Ca 
(calcium), Cl (chloride), and SO4 (sulfate)) in water, the lower its 
freezing point.  For example, seawater, which has approximately 3500 parts 
per million "salt" (including Na, Ca, Cl, SO4, Mg, K, and CO3), will freeze 
(and melt) at -2.2°C.  A water with extreme salinity such as very salty 
lake waters at Death Valley, California (approximately 300,000 parts per 
million "salt") may freeze and melt at temperatures as low as -20 - -30°C!
Because salt lowers the freezing point depression, it is added to icy roads 
in order to melt the ice.

The reason why salt lowers the freezing temperature of water is a bit more 
difficult to explain without discussing more complex chemistry.  Basically, 
pure water, H2O, is a different substance than salt water, such as NaCl-
H2O.  As different substances, they have different chemical properties.  
Salt "gets in the way" of the interactions between H and O, making it 
harder for the H and O to bond as ice.

You can do very simple processes in the lab or classroom illustrating this 
principle.  Fill two containers with water and put table salt in only one 
container of water.  Put both containers somewhere cold (in the freezer or 
even outside over night).  See what heppens!  

How does thermostat work

Enjoy watching

Health benefits of vitamin B 12

Vitamin B12 is an essential water soluble vitamin that is commonly found in a variety of foods such as fish, shellfish, meats, and dairy products. Vitamin B12 is frequently used in combination with other B vitamins in a vitamin B complex formulation. It helps maintain healthy nerve cells and red blood cells, and is also needed to make DNA, the genetic material in all cells. Vitamin B12 is bound to the protein in food. Hydrochloric acid in the stomach releases B12 from protein during digestion. Once released, B12 combines with a substance called intrinsic factor (IF) before it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
The human body stores several years' worth of vitamin B12, so nutritional deficiency of this vitamin is extremely rare. Elderly are the most at risk. However, deficiency can result from being unable to use vitamin B12. Inability to absorb vitamin B12 from the intestinal tract can be caused by a disease known as pernicious anemia. Additionally, strict vegetarians or vegans who are not taking in proper amounts of B12 are also prone to a deficiency state.
A day's supply of vitamin B12 can be obtained by eating 1 chicken breast (0.6mcg) plus 1 hard-boiled egg (0.55mcg) plus 1 cup plain low-fat yogurt (1.37mcg) or 1 cup milk (0.92mcg) plus 1 cup raisin bran (1.64mcg).
These uses have been tested in humans or animals. Safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Uses based on scientific evidence
Vitamin B12 deficiency
Studies have shown that a deficiency of vitamin B12 can lead to abnormal neurologic and psychiatric symptoms. These symptoms may include: ataxia (shaky movements and unsteady gait), muscle weakness, spasticity, incontinence, hypotension, vision problems, dementia, psychoses, and mood disturbances. Researchers report that these symptoms may occur when vitamin B12 levels are just slightly lower than normal and are considerably above the levels normally associated with anemia. People at risk for vitamin B12 deficiency include strict vegetarians, elderly people, and people with increased vitamin B12 requirements associated with pregnancy, thyrotoxicosis, hemolytic anemia, hemorrhage, malignancy, liver or kidney disease.Administering vitamin B12 orally, intramuscularly, or intranasally is effective for preventing and treating dietary vitamin B12 deficiency. An oral dose of 100-250 micrograms/day is usually adequate although patients with absorption difficulties may need 1000 micrograms/day of vitamin B12. Oral preparations should not be used in patients with diarrhea, vomiting, severe neurologic involvement, or in patients likely to be noncompliant to therapy.
Megaloblastic anemia - due to vitamin B12 deficiency
Vitamin B12 deficiency is a cause of megaloblastic anemia. In this type of anemia, red blood cells are larger than normal, and the ratio of nucleus size to cell cytoplasm is increased. There are other potential causes of megaloblastic anemia, including folate deficiency or various inborn metabolic disorders. If the cause is B12 deficiency, then treatment with B12 is the standard approach. Patients with anemia should be evaluated by a physician in order to diagnose and address the underlying cause.
Pernicious anemia
Pernicious anemia (blood abnormality) is a form of anemia that occurs when there is an absence of intrinsic factor, a substance normally present in the stomach. Vitamin B12 binds with intrinsic factor before it is absorbed and used by the body. An absence of intrinsic factor prevents normal absorption of B12 and may result in pernicious anemia. Pernicious anemia treatment is usually lifelong supplemental vitamin B12 given either intramuscularly, intranasally, or by mouth.
Alzheimer's disease
Some patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease have been found to have abnormally low vitamin B12 levels in their blood. However, vitamin B12 deficiency itself often causes disorientation and confusion and thus mimics some of the prominent symptoms of Alzheimer's disease. Well designed clinical trials are needed before a recommendation can be made.
Some evidence suggests that folic acid 1mg plus vitamin B12 400mcg and pyridoxine 10mg daily can decrease the rate of restenosis in patients treated with balloon angioplasty. But this combination does not seem to be as effective for reducing restenosis in patients after coronary stenting. An intravenous loading dose of folic acid, vitamin B6 and vitamin B12 followed by oral administration of folic acid 1.2mg plus vitamin B6 48mg and vitamin B12 60mcg taken daily after coronary stenting also does not seem to reduce restenosis and might actually increase restenosis. Due to the lack of evidence of benefit and potential for harm, this combination of vitamins should not be recommended for patients receiving coronary stents.
Breast cancer
Researchers at Johns Hopkins University report that women with breast cancer tend to have lower vitamin B12 levels in their blood serum than do women without breast cancer. In a subsequent review of these findings, it was hypothesized that vitamin B12 deficiency may lead to breast cancer because it could result in less folate being available to ensure proper DNA replication and repair. Higher dietary folate intake is associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer. The risk may be further reduced in women who also consume high amounts of dietary vitamin B12 in combination with dietary pyridoxine (vitamin B6) and methionine. However, there is no evidence that dietary vitamin B12 alone reduces the risk of breast cancer.
Cardiovascular disease/hyperhomocysteinemia
Hyperhomocysteinemia (high homocysteine levels in the blood) is a risk factor for coronary, cerebral, and peripheral atherosclerosis, recurrent thromboembolism, deep vein thrombosis, myocardial infarction, and ischemic stroke. Elevated homocysteine levels may be a marker instead of a cause of vascular disease. However, it is not clear if lowering homocysteine levels results in reduced cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Folic acid, pyridoxine (vitamin B6), and vitamin B12 supplementation can reduce total homocysteine levels, however, this reduction doesn't seem to help with secondary prevention of death or cardiovascular events such as stroke or myocardial infarction in people with prior stroke. More evidence is needed to fully explain the association of total homocysteine levels with vascular risk and the potential use of vitamin supplementation.
There is some evidence that intramuscular injections of 5mg of vitamin B12 given twice per week might improve the general well being and happiness of patients complaining of tiredness or fatigue. However, fatigue has many potential causes. Well designed clinical trials are needed before a recommendation can be made.
High cholesterol
Some evidence suggests that 7.5mcg of vitamin B12 in combination with 5 grams of fish oil might be superior to fish oil alone when used daily to reduce total serum cholesterol and triglycerides. Well designed clinical trials of vitamin B12 supplementation alone are needed before a conclusion can be drawn.
Imerslund-Grasbeck disease
Administering vitamin B12 intramuscularly seems to be effective for treating familial selective vitamin B12 malabsorption (Imerslund-Grasbeck disease). Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Shaky-leg syndrome
Preliminary clinical reports show that cyanocobalamin may help relieve tremor associated with shaky-leg syndrome. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Sickle cell disease
One study suggests that a practical daily combination may be 1mg folic acid, 6mcg vitamin B12, and 6mg vitamin B6. This combination may be a simple and relatively inexpensive way to reduce these patients' inherently high risk of endothelial damage. Further research is needed to confirm these results.
Circadian rhythm sleep disorders
Taking vitamin B12 orally, in methylcobalamin form, does not seem to be effective for treating delayed sleep phase syndrome. Supplemental methylcobalamin 0.5 to 1mg three times daily, with or without bright light therapy, does not seem to help people with primary circadian rhythm sleep disorders.
Lung cancer
Preliminary evidence suggests that there is no relationship between vitamin B12 status and lung cancer.
In people with a history of stroke, neither high dose vitamin B12 combinations containing 25mg of pyridoxine, 0.4mg of vitamin B12, and 2.5mg of folic acid nor low dose combinations containing 200mcg of pyridoxine, 6mcg of vitamin B12, and 20mcg of folic acid seem to affect risk of recurring stroke.
Leber's disease
Vitamin B12 is contraindicated in early Leber's disease, which is hereditary optic nerve atrophy. Vitamin B12 can cause severe and swift optic atrophy.
Uses based on tradition or theory
The below uses are based on tradition or scientific theories. They often have not been thoroughly tested in humans, and safety and effectiveness have not always been proven. Some of these conditions are potentially serious, and should be evaluated by a qualified healthcare provider.
Aging, AIDS, allergies, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, asthma, boosting energy, chronic fatigue syndrome, depression, depressive disorder (major), diabetes, diabetic peripheral neuropathy, hemorrhage, immunosuppression, improving concentration, improving mood, inflammatory bowel disease, kidney disease, liver disease, male infertility, memory loss, multiple sclerosis, malignancy, osteoporosis, periodontal disease, protection from tobacco smoke, psychiatric disorders, seborrheic dermatitis, tendonitis, thyrotoxicosis, tinnitus, tremor, vitiligo

Do any animals besides people snore

Yes, some animals do snore, according to anecdotal reports and personal observations.
Just a few snorers that zookeepers and pet owners have observed are dogs, gorillas and bears.
The mechanism of snoring in these mammals probably resembles what happens in people.
In human beings, snoring is noisy breathing through the open mouth produced by vibration of the soft palate, the back part of the separation between the oral and nasal cavities.
It is more common while people are sleeping on the back, as the lower jaw tends to drop open.
Snoring is encouraged by anything that hinders breathing through the nose.

Petrol prices

Hi Everyone

REMEMBER : *Feb * 14 th.. Your HELP IS MUST...

it is said...
Petrol in Pakistan                 Rs17 per liter
in Malaysia                         Rs 18 per liter
in India it's                         Rs 65 per liter

Why is there a difference within India itself? World Market CRUDE Oil
is not the reason.

The reason for this. It's all Gain for private owners? As we are the
general public, or Common Man as R.K.Laxman would have said, we have to
raise our voice, let's raise thru Emails.

Forward this to all Indians who care.







*Feb.* 14 th


We forward so many junk email to many of our friends, now let us do
it for some useful cause to cut down the price of the petrol .. ...