Sunday, February 6, 2011

Top 10 ways to keep your brain strong and sharp

While we're always using our brains, we're not necessarily doing much to keep them in good shape. Here are the top ten sites and tools to train your brain and exercise your mental muscles.

Top 10 arthimetic tips and tricks

Math can be terrifying for many people. This list will hopefully improve your general knowledge of mathematical tricks and your speed when you need to do math in your head.
1. The 11 Times Trick
We all know the trick when multiplying by ten – add 0 to the end of the number, but did you know there is an equally easy trick for multiplying a two digit number by 11? This is it:
Take the original number and imagine a space between the two digits (in this example we will use 52:
Now add the two numbers together and put them in the middle:
That is it – you have the answer: 572.
If the numbers in the middle add up to a 2 digit number, just insert the second number and add 1 to the first:
1089 – It works every time.
2. Quick Square
If you need to square a 2 digit number ending in 5, you can do so very easily with this trick. Mulitply the first digit by itself + 1, and put 25 on the end. That is all!
252 = (2x(2+1)) & 25
2 x 3 = 6
3. Multiply by 5
Most people memorize the 5 times tables very easily, but when you get in to larger numbers it gets more complex – or does it? This trick is super easy.
Take any number, then divide it by 2 (in other words, halve the number). If the result is whole, add a 0 at the end. If it is not, ignore the remainder and add a 5 at the end. It works everytime:
2682 x 5 = (2682 / 2) & 5 or 0
2682 / 2 = 1341 (whole number so add 0)
Let’s try another:
5887 x 5
2943.5 (fractional number (ignore remainder, add 5)
4. Multiply by 9
This one is simple – to multiple any number between 1 and 9 by 9 hold both hands in front of your face – drop the finger that corresponds to the number you are multiplying (for example 9×3 – drop your third finger) – count the fingers before the dropped finger (in the case of 9×3 it is 2) then count the numbers after (in this case 7) – the answer is 27.
5. Multiply by 4
This is a very simple trick which may appear obvious to some, but to others it is not. The trick is to simply multiply by two, then multiply by two again:
58 x 4 = (58 x 2) + (58 x 2) = (116) + (116) = 232
6. Calculate a Tip
If you need to leave a 15% tip, here is the easy way to do it. Work out 10% (divide the number by 10) – then add that number to half its value and you have your answer:
15% of $25 = (10% of 25) + ((10% of 25) / 2)
$2.50 + $1.25 = $3.75
7. Tough Multiplication
If you have a large number to multiply and one of the numbers is even, you can easily subdivide to get to the answer:
32 x 125, is the same as:
16 x 250 is the same as:
8 x 500 is the same as:
4 x 1000 = 4,000
8. Dividing by 5
Dividing a large number by five is actually very simple. All you do is multiply by 2 and move the decimal point:
195 / 5
Step1: 195 * 2 = 390
Step2: Move the decimal: 39.0 or just 39
2978 / 5
step 1: 2978 * 2 = 5956
Step2: 595.6
9. Subtracting from 1,000
To subtract a large number from 1,000 you can use this basic rule: subtract all but the last number from 9, then subtract the last number from 10:
step1: subtract 6 from 9 = 3
step2: subtract 4 from 9 = 5
step3: subtract 8 from 10 = 2
answer: 352
10. Assorted Multiplication Rules
Multiply by 5: Multiply by 10 and divide by 2.
Multiply by 6: Sometimes multiplying by 3 and then 2 is easy.
Multiply by 9: Multiply by 10 and subtract the original number.
Multiply by 12: Multiply by 10 and add twice the original number.
Multiply by 13: Multiply by 3 and add 10 times original number.
Multiply by 14: Multiply by 7 and then multiply by 2
Multiply by 15: Multiply by 10 and add 5 times the original number, as above.
Multiply by 16: You can double four times, if you want to. Or you can multiply by 8 and then by 2.
Multiply by 17: Multiply by 7 and add 10 times original number.
Multiply by 18: Multiply by 20 and subtract twice the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 19: Multiply by 20 and subtract the original number.
Multiply by 24: Multiply by 8 and then multiply by 3.
Multiply by 27: Multiply by 30 and subtract 3 times the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 45: Multiply by 50 and subtract 5 times the original number (which is obvious from the first step).
Multiply by 90: Multiply by 9 (as above) and put a zero on the right.
Multiply by 98: Multiply by 100 and subtract twice the original number.
Multiply by 99: Multiply by 100 and subtract the original number.
Bonus: Percentages
Yanni in comment 23 gave an excellent tip for working out percentages, so I have taken the liberty of duplicating it here:
Find 7 % of 300. Sound Difficult?
Percents: First of all you need to understand the word “Percent.” The first part is PER , as in 10 tricks per listverse page. PER = FOR EACH. The second part of the word is CENT, as in 100. Like Century = 100 years. 100 CENTS in 1 dollar… etc. Ok… so PERCENT = For Each 100.
So, it follows that 7 PERCENT of 100, is 7. (7 for each hundred, of only 1 hundred).
8 % of 100 = 8. 35.73% of 100 = 35.73
But how is that useful??
Back to the 7% of 300 question. 7% of the first hundred is 7. 7% of 2nd hundred is also 7, and yep, 7% of the 3rd hundred is also 7. So 7+7+7 = 21.
If 8 % of 100 is 8, it follows that 8% of 50 is half of 8 , or 4.
Break down every number that’s asked into questions of 100, if the number is less then 100, then move the decimal point accordingly.
8%200 = ? 8 + 8 = 16.
8%250 = ? 8 + 8 + 4 = 20.
8%25 = 2.0 (Moving the decimal back).
15%300 = 15+15+15 =45.
15%350 = 15+15+15+7.5 = 52.5
Also it’s useful to know that you can always flip percents, like 3% of 100 is the same as 100% of 3.
35% of 8 is the same as 8% of 35.

Fantastic math trick

In just FIVE minutes you should learn to quickly multiply up to 20x20 in your head.  With this trick, you will be able to multiply any two numbers from 11 to 19 in your head quickly, without the use of a calculator.
I will assume that you know your multiplication table reasonably well up to 10x10.
Try this:

  • Take 15 x 13 for an example.
  • Always place the larger number of the two on top in your mind.
  • Then draw the shape of Africa mentally so it covers the 15 and the 3 from the 13 below. Those covered numbers are all you need.
  • First add 15 + 3 = 18
  • Add a zero behind it (multiply by 10) to get 180.
  • Multiply the covered lower 3 x the single digit above it the "5" (3x5= 15)
  • Add 180 + 15 = 195.
That is It! Wasn't that easy? Practice it on paper first!

Google chrome tips and tricks

The popularity of any software can be guessed from the number of hacks that trail it after a release. Or the number of add-ons. Google Chrome seems to be not only holding its own but also trotting along. As of April 2009, it is the world’s fourth most popular browser. Not bad for a browser which is few months away from its first birthday.
As user opinions sally back and forth about browser preferences, one thing is not open to question. Firefox is definitely more expandable and customizable than all others out there (Don’t they call it the Swiss Army knife for the web).
But if you like the Chrome’s agility then there are ways to make it more versatile. We at have gone over quite a lot of ground with the Chrome. You can read about some tips and tricks here and here.
Here are some more ways to reach under the hood and exploit some handy Chrome features.

    1. Make Chrome’s consume less memory

    By default, Chrome is a multi-process browser. Yawn! What’s that? Simply, it means that each tab runs as a separate process asking for separate resources from the computer. The current working tab gets the most priority over the others. This was intentionally designed to make web apps run faster in Chrome. This feature makes the browser zippier and more stable even with multiple open tabs. But if you aren’t a heavy user and use the browser to surf only a single site at a time then disabling multiple processes can free up some CPU resources. To handle each web process Chrome has three settings – –process-per-tab The default mode; each tab gets an independent process of its own. This increases the rendering of webpages and makes the browser stable as each tab is a separate process from the rest. But it also consumes memory. –process-per-site One process for each unique website; for instance a user with two tabs open for Gmail and another for MakeUseOf will have the two Google tabs running under the same process. –single-process The simplest mode; all tabs run in a single process, much like the other browsers we have now. This setting frees up memory for other applications. This is what we are looking for. Create a shortcut for Chrome. Open the Properties tab. Edit the Target field as shown in the picture by appending –single-process to the path. 1_single-process Similarly you can create two more shortcuts for the other two processes to handle your web sessions in three ways.

    2. Manage tabs with the Task Manager

    This is an offshoot of Google Chrome’s multi-process nature which allows each tab to run separate from the other. This allows us to manage, reload or shut down each tab without affecting the rest of our browsing. All this can be done through the Task Manager. Press Shift and Escape to start the task manager or right click on the blue top bar. An unresponsive tab can be shut down without bringing down the browser by a simple press of the End process button. 4a_task-manager

    3. Some stats for nerds

    There is a simple way to tell which browser is using the most resources on your computer. Chrome’s task manager lets you examine the memory use of the opened browsers on your computer irrespective of make. Open task manager and click on the ‘Stats for nerds’ link at the bottom. A new tab opens with detailed memory info for all running browsers. The second part of the page also describes Chrome’s process usage stats. 4_stats

    4. Some more stats on the Resources page

    More for site administrators than for you and me but the resources page has a ton of info to offer. To track the resources used by a web page – right click inside the page. Select Inspect element – go to the Resources tab and reload the web page. You can view a list of images, scripts and objects from the web page and you can sort them by size or by loading time. 5_resources

    5. Drag to resize any text box

    Do you feel that the size of a text box on any website is not worthy of your thoughts…then just place your mouse on the bottom right edge and drag to increase the size. Give’s comment box the first drag. 2_textbox-size

    6. Split Chrome into double-pane view

    This bookmarklet from is incredibly useful. The dual view feature is useful when you want to compare two websites or search results side by side. Drag the Chrome Split Browser bookmarklet into your bookmarks toolbar. When you click the bookmarklet, it asks you to choose the two websites you want and displays them in a double pane. 3_dual-view

    7. Startup with multiple pages

    On launch, Chrome opens up with the ‘Most visited’ area. But it also lets us set options for starting the day by opening our most favored sites in several tabs at once. Click on the wrench icon (Customize and control Chrome) on the top right corner. Under Options – Basic tab we can add the pages we want to open on startup. 6_multiple-pages

    8. Drag and drop downloads from Chrome

    After finishing a download, you can copy it to the desktop or to any other folder by a simple drag and drop directly from Google Chrome. 7_download
Did I miss any of your favorite tips or tricks? Let us know in the comments and lets help each other create a more sleek Chrome experience

Tips to get a job

Here’s a checklist that you should run through before any consulting interview. 80% of the advice applies across industries and job functions as well. Happy reading!

Long before the interview…

1) Start case prep NOW. Not tomorrow, not in a week, start it NOW. Remember, the case can be more than 50% of the final “score” that will determine your candidacy. Here’s a general outline of how to prepare:
  • Get your hands on as many different cases as you can – both books like Case In Point, websites like, as well as online materials and resources (you’d be amazed at how valuable the websites of university consulting clubs can be)
  • Run through them ideally with a consulting-interested friend, but if one isn’t available, practice by yourself. The key to good independent practice is to answer the question first, and THEN look at the real answer. Try to recognize patterns – is your answer always missing an analysis of the company’s internal situation? Do you always forget to discuss strategy in the context of competitors? Then make a mental note NOT to forget that
  • Simulate actual case interviews as much as you can. The timing is critical – both how long your answers are, and how much time you should spend asking questions versus providing responses. Ideally, you’d practice then with a consultant who has experience in this area – but if not, a sharp friend will do. I’d even suggest getting a stopwatch, and looking at the length of your responses. If you’re over a minute, for 99% of answers that is too long
I will be uploading some very valuable, and free, case prep resources in the next week that I’ve managed to discover across the internet, and that kind readers have shared with me. Stay tuned!

While some people think that the case can be 100% of the decision – and while this percentage will vary by firm and by office – generally the behavioral component is equally important. Especially because, at the end of the day, the vast majority of people will miss at least SOME part of the case – and when it comes to deciding between all of these people, what do you think the interviewers will base their decision on? Resume. Personality.
2) Setup informational meetings and phone calls with as many current and former consultants as you can. This is invaluable for many reasons:
  • It helps with networking. If they’re impressed with you, they will be self-motivated to send a strong recommendation to HR. They may put you in touch with other consultants for more practice and advice. Etc.
  • It helps with industry and job familiarization. The more you know about the job, the lingo, the challenges, the pros and cons – the better you will do in the behavioral interview. And the more that you hear about REAL cases and REAL problems, the more you’ll understand about the case interview – and what consultants are truly looking for in responses (hint, it’s all about things that will really move the needle)
  • It helps you personally. Many people get into consulting for the wrong reasons, which is a post in and of itself, but meeting consultants will give you a great feel for the types of people you’ll work with, their personalities, and help you make a decision about whether its the right path for you.

Immediately before the interview…

3) Practice in front of a mirror and with friends. Each has its own benefits. The mirror allows you to fix awkward facial expressions, poor body language, etc. The friend gives you live feedback and is closer to the actual interview dynamic. Volume and pace are important – don’t talk too fast (it’s natural when you’re nervous) and don’t compensate by speaking too loudly.
4) DRESS NICELY. Wrinkled shirts = do not think ahead = unable to plan workstreams = poor team member. Misshapen tie-knot = lack of friends able to do you a favor = poor social skills = poor team member. Dress nicely for men typically means a suit with tie and clean dress shoes. Same expectations for women. No cologne for men, very very light perfume for women.
EXTRA CREDIT if you wear brands that are most closely in line with the firm’s popular dress labels. Some of you may think I’m taking this too far, but ignore the jobless naysayers. For consulting, Brooks Brothers is a great bet. Half the consultants wear it. At the very least, you’ll show up looking professional. It can’t hurt
5) Do not OVERDRESS. Had a colleague who went to investment banking interviews in an extra-long European-style suit, with a vest and loud tie. It screamed fashion guru, not banking analyst. Wear standard, muted colors – gray, white, and light shades of blue are your friend. Some may think that standing out is a good thing – but don’t push the envelope too far.  if its appropriate.
6) Scan the news in the morning. Business consultants (read: your target audience) are very well read on the latest business news, and have a more than cursory understanding of politics and international affairs as well. At the very least, know the key issues of the moment. For example, you’ll look idiotic if you go into an interview today without being able to talk about the subprime and financial crisis for a minute or two.
EXTRA CREDIT if you bring up something interesting you read that morning to kickstart the interview or work it into the conversation:
“I’ve lightly traded a personal portfolio for the last couple years, but recently most of my tech stocks haven’t done well…and I just read today that Apple released the iGod 3000, which has helped me recover some losses I suffered in these last few months’ chaos
7) KNOW YOUR RESUME BACK AND FORTH, UP AND DOWN – it is one of the few things that you completely control so know what the heck it says! I remember attending post-interview review sessions where interviewers would recall applicants mixing up the dates for their previous jobs, extracurriculars, and so forth. At best, you look forgetful. At worst, you’re suspected of fabricating your record. So know it well, know what you wrote in it, and be ready to give 30-, 60-, and 2-minute run-throughs of it. Which brings me to my next point…
EXTRA CREDIT if you refer interviewer directly to a line in your resume:
“If you look at my resume under the Company X internship, I increased their billing data accuracy 25% by redesigning their online forms”

During the interview…

8) …have your resume handy, and ask if the interviewer would LIKE A COPY. An interview is not the time to be shy – most people bring their resumes but just keep them hidden in their padfolios. Bring it out and offer them one – it shows you’re proactive, and if they say no, you’ll have it in-front of you if you need to refer to it
9) Project great energy. This one is HUGE. I. cannot. underestimate. its. importance. Most interviewees are nervous, shy, and stone-faced. Would you want to spend upwards of 12 hours a day in a tiny room with someone like that? I would think not. You’d want to spend those 12 hours with a person who is upbeat, enthusiastic, cheerful, and has great energy. It’s important not to overdo this, of course – but from my experience that’s not the problem most candidates encounter. How do you do this? Simple – smile a lot. Project when you communicate. Use hand gestures and display great presentation skills. Maintain eye contact, and lean forward just slightly. Laugh a little – at yourself, at a joke – to help you (and the interviewer) relax. Even the most experienced interviewers can be a little tense when asking questions, and realize that they’re in the same boat. Help calm the situation for both of you, and you’ll be way ahead in the game.
10) Prepare and ask smart follow-up questions. 99% of the time, you’ll be allowed 5-10 minutes to ask questions of the interviewers. Have 2-3 good questions ready, and no, “Why did you choose management consulting?” does not count as one. Here are a bunch of great followup questions you can ask:
  • What’s been the most difficult client issue that you’ve faced?
  • Do you consider post-[insert current job here] options and if so, what are they?
  • If I got this job, what advice could you give me to help me get off to a fast start?
  • If I were interested in (insert industry, geography, function here), how could I really get experience in that area?
  • What would you say are the most common mistakes that new hires make?
  • Which project has been the most (challenging/exciting/engaging) for you?
There is a lot more DURING THE INTERVIEW content that I will write about in later posts. All business consulting firms have a FIT INTERVIEW (eg, do you have the right personality traits to be successful at our company) and in consulting, there is also the Case Interview (eg, can you solve problems that are Cliffs Notes versions of our actual job)

After the interview…

11) Ask for a business card, ask if you can email them with followup questions, and then ACTUALLY FOLLOW-UP. I’ve found that especially in consulting and corporate (less so in finance), people are eager to talk to you and typically accessible. Ask them for FEEDBACK. Thank them for their TIME. Ask them to point you to others who have more expertise in a particular topic of interest to you (for example, if you’re really interested in non-profit consulting, ask them to point you to someone who could speak to that firm’s non-profit consulting opportunities). This keeps the interviewer engaged with you, and leaves an impression of someone who’s both interested and proactive. Two qualities that definitely HELP in landing a job.
12) Ask your interviewer to give you DETAILED FEEDBACK. Why? Because this feedback – both the pros/cons, strengths/weaknesses – will influence the style and content of your future interviews. If your first interviewer mentions that you had no problems with the fit/personality questions but really struggled with the market sizing calculations, you can bet that the second interviewer will focus on your quantitative chops.
Readers often ask whether you can ask for feedback if you don’t pass the first round. This is typically rare, unless you established a good connection with your first round interviewer. Why? The simple answer is time. There are too many first round interviews, and needing to provide feedback for each would require an enormous undertaking. This is why I highly recommend that you ask for some feedback right after the interview, while you’re still in the same room and the experience is fresh. 9 times out of 10, your interviewer will be happy to help
13) Remember a few INTERESTING FACTS from your interview. Facts like the interviewer’s name, office, background. Facts like the conclusion of your particular case study, or the setup for a tricky brainteaser. Why? Because when you get your second round interview, it’s GREAT to bring up those facts with your interviewer. Not only is there a chance that they’ll know the first round interviewer, but discussing these things make you look sharper and more familiar with the firm. Establishing a connection with your interviewer OUTSIDE OF THE INTERVIEW ITSELF is a KEY DIFFERENTIATOR in helping you land the offer.

What is neural schema ?

A Neural Schema Architecture for Autonomous Robots
As autonomous robots become more complex in their behavior, more sophisticated software
architectures are required to support the ever more sophisticated robotics software. These
software architectures must support complex behaviors involving adaptation and learning,
implemented, in particular, by neural networks. We present in this paper a neural based schema
[2] software architecture for the development and execution of autonomous robots in both
simulated and real worlds. This architecture has been developed in the context of adaptive
robotic agents, ecological robots [6], cooperating and competing with each other in adapting to
their environment. The architecture is the result of integrating a number of development and
execution systems: NSL, a neural simulation language; ASL, an abstract schema language; and
MissionLab, a schema-based mission-oriented simulation and robot system. This work
contributes to modeling in Brain Theory (BT) and Cognitive Psychology, with applications in
Distributed Artificial Intelligence (DAI), Autonomous Agents and Robotics.
Areas: Robotics, Agent-oriented programming, Neural Nets
Keywords: Autonomous Robots, Autonomous Agents, Schemas, Neural Networks,
1 Introduction
To enable the development and execution of complex behaviors in autonomous robots
involving adaptation and learning, sophisticated software architectures are required.
The neural schema architecture provides such a system, supporting the development
and execution of complex behaviors, or schemas [3][2], in a hierarchical and layered
fashion [9] integrating with neural network processing.
In general, schema theory helps define brain functionality in terms of concurrent
activity of interacting behavioral units called schemas. Schema-based modeling may
be specified purely on behavioral data (ethology), while becoming part of a neural
based approach to adaptive behavior when constrained by data provided by, e.g., the
effects of brain lesions upon animal behavior (neuroethology). Schema modeling
provides a framework for modeling at the purely behavioral level, at the neural
network level or even below [28]. In terms of neural networks, neural schema theory
provides a functional/structural decomposition, in strong contrast with models which
employ learning rules to train a single, otherwise undifferentiated, neural network to
respond as specified by some training set. Neural schema-based modeling proceeds
at two levels: (1) model behavior in terms of schemas, interacting functional units;
(2) implementation of schemas as neural networks based on neuroanatomical and
neurophysiological studies. What makes the linking of structure and function so
challenging is that, in general, a functional analysis proceeding "top-down" from
some overall behavior need not map directly into a "bottom up" analysis proceeding
upwards from the neural circuitry.
The work described in this paper is the product of a collaborative research depicted in
Figure 1.
Neural Simulation
Language (NSL)
Abstract Schema
Language (ASL)
Schema Model
MissionLab (Mlab)
Biological Data Simulations Robot Experiments
Common Language
Figure 1. Collaboration Map
Biological data from behavioral studies in the praying mantis "Chantitlaxia" [11] and
the frog and toad prey acquisition and predator avoidance behaviors [12][14], are
used to generate neural schema models: perceptual schemas, dealing with sensory
input or perceptions; motor schemas, dealing with motor action; and sensorimotor
schemas, integrating between sensory input and motor action. These studies are
modeled in terms of computational schemas in the Abstract Schema Language (ASL)
[25], implemented as neural networks in the Neural Simulation Language (NSL) [27],
and simulated in a virtual world or executed in the real world with the MissionLab
(Mlab) robotic system [23].
2 Schemas, Neural Networks and Autonomous Robots
The neural schema architecture for autonomous robots comprises the integration of
three separately developed architectures, each built to support a different aspect of
schema modeling.
2.1 Schemas
As a computational model, schemas define a hierarchical and distributed architecture
for the development of complex adaptive systems. A number of schema-based
architectures have been developed for different application domains, e.g. VISIONS
[18], in vision; RS (Robot Schemas) [22] and MissionLab [3], in robotics. Based on
these domain specific architectures, a unified schema computational model, ASL
(Abstract Schema Language) [25], was designed with the ability to integrate with
neural networks processing across different domains as well. Schemas in ASL are
hierarchical and distributed autonomous agents, where ASL integrates concurrent
object-oriented programming methodologies [29] with agent modeling [8]. As a
language ASL corresponds more to a specification language rather than to an explicit
programming language. The detailed implementation is left unspecified, only
specifying what is to be achieved. Different implementations may correspond to a
single schema, where implementation are in terms of neural networks or other schema
process. The ASL computational model is shown in Figure 2.
At the top of Figure 2, a schema is shown decomposed into other schemas. This
decomposition gives rise to schema aggregation, or schema assemblages. Schemas
are specified and implemented either through wrapping, which enables static
integration of external programs, or through task delegation, which enables dynamic
integration of schemas as separate specification and implementation tasks. (Solid
arrows between boxes represent connections between objects, while dashed arrows
represent task delegation.)
data in
data out
neural schema other process
Figure 2. Schema Hierarchy
Schema interfaces consists of multiple unidirectional control or data, input and output
ports, and a method section where schema behavior is specified. Communication is in
the form of asynchronous message passing, hierarchically managed, internally,
through anonymous port reading and writing, and externally, through dynamic port
connections and relabelings. When doing connections, output ports from one schema
are connected to input ports from other schemas, and ports from schemas at different
hierarchies are linked to each other when doing relabelings. The hierarchical port
management methodology enables the development of distributed systems where
objects may be designed and implemented independently and without prior
knowledge of their final execution environment, encouraging model reusability. This
supports both top-down and bottom-up system designs as required by neural schema
In order to support complex schema modeling, ASL is design as a distributed
multithreaded system architecture, executing on different platforms [10], as shown in
Figure 3.
Figure 3. Abstract Schema Language (ASL) System Architecture
2.2 Neural Networks
Neural networks serve as the underlying implementation for neural schemas. Lower
level neural network components integrate with higher level schemas, as shown in
Figure 4:
data in
data out
complex simple
Figure 4. Neural Schema Hierarchy
The Neural Schema Language (NSL) [27] provides the linkage to ASL, enabling the
integration of neural networks as schema implementations. The ability to implement
schemas through different neural networks results in the added benefit of enabling the
construction of distributed neural networks. Mapping between schemas and neural
networks may not only be 1 to 1, but also many to many. The neural schema model
not only enables the encapsulation of neural networks into schemas, but also provides
an extended model where neurons themselves may have their task delegated by neural
implementations of different levels of detail, from the very simple neuron models to
the very complex ones [26].
Operating System
User Models
NSL Tcl/Tk Scrippting Language
NSL Model Class Library
NSL Graphics Interface
NSL Runtime System
NSL Java/C++ Compiled Language
Figure 5. NSL System Architecture
The NSL system architecture is shown in Figure 5. Models are described via a
compiled language, where graphics displays and a scripting language provide the
interfacing mechanisms between the model and the user. Two implementations of the
system currently exist: NSLC in C++ and NSLJ in Java.
2.3 Schema-based control for autonomous robots
In robotics, schemas have been used to provide the underlying software control
mechanisms for a number of systems, e.g. MissionLab [3] and RS [22]. In particular,
in the control of autonomous robots, such as with MissionLab, motor schemas have
been encoded as a variant of the potential field methodology [21]. In this context,
schemas have the following characteristics:
1. Each is an independent asynchronous computational agent executing in parallel
with other schemas.
2. Sensing is directly tied to motor control following the action-oriented perception
paradigm, where information is obtained via sensing on a need-to-know basis [4].
3. Each active schema produces a vector that encodes the behavioral response for a
given stimulus.
4. Coordination of schemas is typically conducted via behavioral fusion: vector
summation and normalization of the individual schemas outputs.
5. Schemas can be aggregated into assemblages, which provide a higher level of
6. Their use is rooted in neuroscientific and psychological theory.
This particular form of behavioral control has been tested on a wide range of robotic
systems: from teams of small robots used for competitions to military sized vehicles
[5], as shown in the Figure 6.
Figure 6. Collection of schema-based robots
MissionLab [23] is a tool that has been recently developed for the testing and
deployment of schema-based reactive controllers for autonomous robots. It
incorporates a graphical user interface, reusable software libraries, a simulation
facility, and the capability to download executable robot code for a range of real
mobile platforms. MissionLab serves as the testbed for the results in this project. The
architecture of MissionLab is shown in Figure 7.
CDL Compiler
syntax semantics
Architecture specific
and robot specific
checking roboti
Code generator
for Code generator
for UGV
Code generator
for AuRA
C++ Code
CNL Code
Figure 7. MissionLab System Architecture
2.4 Integrated Architecture
In order to enable the described schema modeling, the three architectures: ASL, NSL
and Missionlab, were integrated under a single system environment. ASL was first
integrated to NSL [10], and then the ASL/NSL system to MissionLab [24]. The
integrated architecture is shown in Figure 8.
Sensor Input
Motor Output
Perceptual and
MissionLab ASL/NSL
Figure 8. ASL/NSL/MissionLab Integrated Architecture
Integration is carried out through binding points between ASL/NSL and MisionLab.
Sensor input from MissionLab, simulated data or real world data from actual robots,
is read by the perceptual neural schemas in the ASL/NSL system. Sensorimotor
neural schemas in ASL/NSL generate output to the motor schemas executing in
MissionLab, either in the simulated or real world.
3 Computational Neuroethology
Neuroethology, the study of the nervous system and animal behavior, has inspired a
number of computational models, such as Rana Computatrix, the computational frog
[1], the computational cockroach [7], and the computational hoverfly [13]. Such
computational models involve a rich number of neural based behaviors, such as the
Chantlitaxia, searching from a proper habitat, taken from the Praying Mantis behavior
[11], as described in the ethogram in Figure 9.
Exploration Orientation
REST (mimesis)
Alternative conducts
· Mating
· Hunting
· Self-cleaning
· Fly
· “Oviposicion”
· Ecdisis
· Defense
Simulated catalepsy
(The action of releasing
the ootheca with the eggs).
Figure 9. Praying Mantis' Chantlitlaxia Ethogram
Different models are currently being developed under the ASL/NSL/MissionLab
neural schema architecture. Besides the Chantlitlaxia behavior [6], we have
prototyped the adaptive toad's prey acquisition behavior due to a static barrier [14],
and developing a prey acquisition and predator avoidance behavior modulated by
learning processes in neural networks [20].
3.1 Prey Acquisition with Detour Behavior
As an example of a model developed under the neural based schema architecture we
describe the toad's detour behavior due to stationary objects on its way to a prey [14].
The experiment being modeled consists of a barrier placed between a prey and a toad,
as shown in Figure 10.
Two different barrier sizes were tried, 10 and 20 cm. Both barriers are made of
fenceposts, where each fencepost has a very small width, but tall enough not to have
the toad jump over it. The fence posts are distanced 2 cm from each other. The toad is
20 cm away from the barrier, and the prey is 10 cm away opposite the barrier.
0 cm
0 cm
cm prey
20cm 10cm
Figure 10. Toad's prey acquisition with detour behavior experiment
When the barrier is 10 cm wide the toad approaches directly to the barrier edges and
from there continues to the prey, as shown in Figure 10. When the barrier is 20 cm
wide, the toad advances to the middle of the barrier, more precisely to the closest gap
between the fenceposts. Not being able to go through the gap, the robot backs up,
reorients and tries again. This adaptive process continues until the edge of the barrier
is in sight. Figure 11 shows the toad's behavior with a 20 cm barrier without and with
learning. These experiments are further described in [17][15].
Toad approximation to 20cm barrier
after learning
Toad approximation to 20cm barrier
Figure 11. Toad's prey acquisition model for a 20 cm barrier, without and with learning.
In order to reproduce these experiments we developed a schema based model with a
robotic agent taking the place of the toad. At the highest level, model behavior is
described by means of schema specifications. The complete model at this level is
described by a network of interconnected schemas as shown in Figure 12:
The model consists of visual and tactile sensory input, perceptual schemas for
recognizing stationary objects and prey moving objects, sensorimotor schemas for
prey approach and static object avoidance, and motor schemas for performing
forward, backward, sidestep and orient motions. Visual input is used to recognize
both the static barrier and the moving prey, while tactile input is triggered when the
robotic agent bumps into the barrier (not being able to go through the gap).
Rather than processing input symbols to yield output symbols, the individual schemas
have activation levels which measure their degree of confidence. In response to the
perceptual schemas input, the more active of the two sensorimotor schemas will
trigger the appropriate motor schema to yield the appropriate response.
Static Object
Prey Approach Forward
Static Object
Schemas Actuators
Perception Action
Figure 12. Schemas for toad's prey acquisition with detour behavior.
In other words, the sensorimotor schemas compete to control the behavior of the
animal. This is a very simple example of the type of mechanisms of competition and
cooperation that can be exhibited by a network of schemas. In particular multiple
motor schemas may be coactivated to control subtle behaviors. The perceptual
schemas are not simply yes-no recognizes, being equipped with a confidence level to
provide a parametric description which can be used in tuning motor behavior
appropriately. When the toad recognizes the prey, the animal does not respond by
moving in a standard or random direction, bur rather it snaps at the position in space
where the prey is located as indicated by the "prey-recognizer" schema.
Neural Networks
Some of the schemas in the toad's prey acquisition model are implemented all the way
down to neural networks. Other schemas, for which the detailed neural circuitry is not
known or involves unnecessary computation for the range of phenomena under study,
are modeled in a simpler manner. For example, motor schemas in this model were not
implemented through neural circuitry for simplification reasons. The neural network
level implementing higher level schemas is shown in Figure 13.
T5_2 layer
TH10 layer
Static Object
Static Object
Prey Approach
Tactile Backward Schema Level
Neural Level
Figure 13. Neural schemas for toad's prey acquisition with detour behavior.
The neural level consists of a Retina corresponding to the Visual input, T5_2 and
TH10 neural layers corresponding the moving prey and static object recognizer, and a
motor heading map where the static object and prey maps integrate. The motor
heading map produces a target heading angle corresponding to the strongest map
activity; providing inhibition between the prey approach and static object avoidance.
This inhibition is important to avoid activating antagonist motor schemas
simultaneously. A tactile modulation component provides adaptation to the model by
increasing the inhibition repetitively, every time the robot hits the barrier. (The
detailed model description can be found in [14].)
Autonomous Robots
The complete autonomous robotic agent is built by integrating the perceptual and
sensorimotor schemas in ASL/NSL with the motor schemas in MissionLab, as
shown in Figure 14.
and Motor
Schema and
Figure 14. Perceptual and Motor Schema Linkage for toad's prey acquisition model.
The robot provides visual and tactile input to the neural schema process. These
respond by producing appropriate forward, orient, sidestep and backward activations,
generating robot movement. The cycle continues indefinitely, terminating only when
reaching the prey. When executed in a real robot, only sensory and actuator binding is
modified in MissionLab without the need to change any of the actual model details.
4 Results
4.1 Prey Acquisition with Detour Behavior
As seen from the Missionlab simulation console, the robot (SP Frog) is initially
positioned in front of a barrier, with a prey away from it, as shown in the left of
Figure 15. The right hand side shows the resulting trajectory generated by the agent.
Figure 16, left, shows the agent's view of the barrier. Figure 16, right, the resulting
attraction field integrating the prey attraction and the barrier repulsion. The highest
value activity in the figure corresponds to the robot's preferred orientation (which
initially corresponds to the prey's direction).
As the robot bumps into the barrier, the barrier's gap inhibition gets incremented
resulting in a new attraction field in the motor heading map, Figure 17, left, producing
reorientation. Every time the frog hits the barrier, it backs down and sidesteps.
Following, the frog gets attracted by the prey again, hitting the barrier, this time on a
different gap. This process continues until the edge of the barrier is perceived,
generating a direct path to the prey, as shown in Figure 17, right.
Figure 15. MissionLab Console view of agent response to the 20cm wide barrier.
Figure 16. Attractant field integrating prey attraction and barrier repulsion.
Figure 17. Attractant field when barrier gap is in sight.
This specific trajectory was generated due to the model reorientation specifics. Other
simulated results, and more detailed results, can be found in [14].
5 Conclusions and Future Work
This paper has shown the fundamentals of the ASL/NSL/MissionLab neural schema
architecture for autonomous robots. A previous architecture is described in [19].
An important aspect of this architecture is the ability to incorporate adaptation and
learning through neural network processes in developing new behavioral architectures
for autonomous agents [16] as well as robots. This goes beyond architectures where
behaviors are described in terms of global states or architectures limited in terms of
adaptation and learning mechanisms. Furthermore, as models become more complex
in their nature, the distributed and concurrent nature of the ASL/NSL/MissonLab
architecture becomes of even greater importance. The prey acquisition model
presented in this paper reproduces one of a number of behavioral experiments with
toads. Other experiments are currently being tested under this architecture, in
particular, extensions to the toad's and praying mantis prey acquisition and predator
avoidance models as they are modulated by learning processes [17]. Furthermore, we
are also in the process of experimenting with these models with actual robots in the
real world [6].
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Top 15 ways to extend your laptop's battery life

Laptops tend to lose their charm quickly when you’re constantly looking for the nearest power outlet to charge up.  How do you keep your battery going for as long as possible?  Here are 15 easy ways to do so.

1. Defrag regularly -  The faster your hard drive does its work – less demand you are going to put on the hard drive and your battery.  Make your hard drive as efficient as possible by defragging it regularly. (but not while it’s on battery of course!) Mac OSX is better built to handle fragmentation so it may not be very applicable for Apple systems.
2. Dim your screen – Most laptops come with the ability to dim your laptop screen.  Some even come with ways to modify CPU and cooling performance.  Cut them down to the lowest level you can tolerate to squeeze out some extra battery juice.
3. Cut down on programs running in the background.  Itunes, Desktop Search, etc.  All these add to the CPU load and cut down battery life.  Shut down everything that isn’t crucial when you’re on battery.
4. Cut down external devices – USB devices (including your mouse) & WiFi drain down your laptop battery.  Remove or shut them down when not in use.  It goes without saying that charging other devices (like your iPod) with your laptop when on battery is a surefire way of quickly wiping out the charge on your laptop battery.
5. Add more RAM - This will allow you to process more with the memory your laptop has, rather than relying on virtual memory.  Virtual memory results in hard drive use, and is much less power efficient. Note that adding more RAM will consume more energy, so this is most applicable if you do need to run memory intensive programs which actually require heavy usage of virtual memory.
dvd Top 15 Ways to Extend Your Laptops Battery Life
6. Run off a hard drive rather than CD/DVD - As power consuming as hard drives are, CD and DVD drives are worse.  Even having one in the drive can be power consuming.  They spin, taking power, even when they?re not actively being used.  Wherever possible, try to run on virtual drives using programs like Alcohol 120% rather than optical ones.
7.  Keep the battery contacts clean:  Clean your battery’s metal contacts every couple of months with a cloth moistened with rubbing alcohol.  This keeps the transfer of power from your battery more efficient.
8. Take care of your battery – Exercise the Battery.  Do not leave a charged battery dormant for long periods of time.  Once charged, you should at least use the battery at least once every two to three weeks. Also, do not let a Li-On battery completely discharge. (Discharing is only for older batteries with memory effects)
9. Hibernate not standby – Although placing a laptop in standby mode saves some power and you can instantly resume where you left off, it doesn’t save anywhere as much power as the hibernate function does.  Hibernating a PC will actually save your PC’s state as it is, and completely shut itself down.
temp Top 15 Ways to Extend Your Laptops Battery Life
10. Keep operating temperature down - Your laptop operates more efficiently when it’s cooler.  Clean out your air vents with a cloth or keyboard cleaner, or refer to some extra tips by
11. Set up and optimize your power options – Go to ‘Power Options’ in your windows control panel and set it up so that power usage is optimized (Select the ‘max battery’ for maximum effect).
12. Don’t multitask – Do one thing at a time when you’re on battery.  Rather than working on a spreadsheet, letting your email client run in the background and listening to your latest set of MP3′s, set your mind to one thing only.  If you don’t you’ll only drain out your batteries before anything gets completed!
13. Go easy on the PC demands – The more you demand from your PC.  Passive activities like email and word processing consume much less power than gaming or playing a DVD.  If you’ve got a single battery charge – pick your priorities wisely.
14. Get yourself a more efficient laptop -  Laptops are getting more and more efficient in nature to the point where some manufacturers are talking about all day long batteries.  Picking up a newer more efficient laptop to replace an aging one is usually a quick fix.
15. Prevent the Memory Effect - If you’re using a very old laptop, you’ll want to prevent the ‘memory effect’ – Keep the battery healthy by fully charging and then fully discharging it at least once every two to three weeks. Exceptions to the rule are Li-Ion batteries (which most laptops have) which do not suffer from the memory effect

The haunted places on the earth to live

There are haunted places on earth, scary spirit infested places on earth...

You will laugh like a lunatic - right? Well, read on if you've guts...

The Screaming Tunnel, Warner Road
A local legend recounts that the tunnel is haunted by the ghost of a young girl, who after escaping a nearby burning farm building with her clothing ablaze, died within its walls. Several variants of the legend exist locally, one version has the girl set on fire by her enraged father after he loses custody of his children after a nasty divorce. Another tells of a young girl being raped inside the tunnel and her body burned to prevent any evidence from being found. All variants involve a claim that a match struck within the tunnel’s recesses will produce the sound of the young girl’s dying screams, this purported phenomena is alleged to be the origin of the tunnel’s name.

haunted places on earthBessie Little Bridge, Dayton
The ghost of a murdered girl named Bessie Little returns regularly to this bridge on Ridge Street. She was murdered there on August 27, 1896, by her boyfriend, Albert J. Frantz. Bessie was pregnant and Albert didn’t want to have to marry her, so he shot her in the head and arranged the scene to suggest a suicide. For some reason, however, he shot her twice, so it was obvious that she hadn’t done it to herself. On November 19, 1897, Albert J. Frantz #28896 was strapped into the electric chair at the Ohio Penitentiary in Columbus and put to death for first degree murder. Back in Montgomery County, Bessie Little’s ghost continues to haunt the bridge.

Ohio University, America
Wilson Hall, famous for a girl (a supposed witch)who killed herself moments after writing satanic and supernatural things on the wall in her own blood. The five cemetaries that form a pentagram that surrounds the campus, with the administrative building being in the center of the devil’s sign. Washington Hall, which is famous for housing a team of basketball players who all died in a terrible crashm their ghosts still haunt the hall, and you can sometimes hear them dribbling. The catacombs of Jefferson Hall, where numerous ghost sightings have occurred. And finally, for The Ridges, an abandoned insane asylum that was known for thousands of labotamies and electro shock treatments. Also, a patient who disappeared, and was found five weeks later, her body decomposed onto the floor and left a stain that outlines her body. This stain can still be seen today.

Kelly Road, Ohioville, Pennsylvania
A one-mile section of Kelly Road, Ohioville, Pennsylvania is an area that has had numerous reports of paranormal activity and bizarre happenings. Reports say that when animals have entered this haunted stretch of road they suddenly turn from peaceful and quiet to violent, going after other animals and even people. The road is surrounded by dark, thick and creepy forest where white apparitions and noises that can’t be explained have been seen and heard. No one is quite sure why this short section of road is haunted but theories suggest that is could be somehow connected to cult activity that was once taking place in the area and curses that have been put on the land for some reason.

Alcatraz Prison, San Francisco
The island, believed to be an evil place by Native Americans, has seen centuries of death from accidents, murders, and suicides. With this dark history, it’s no wonder Alcatraz is said to be one of the most haunted places in the nation. If ghosts return to haunt the places where they suffered traumatic experiences when they were alive, then Alcatraz must be bursting at the seams with spirits. For years there have been reports of mysterious happenings on Alcatraz Island. These reports come from visitors, former guards, former prisoners, and national park service employees. From the original lighthouse reappearing on occasion to clanging, screaming, and sobbing, there are too many tales to put into this short article. It would definitely take a book to tell them all. Some of the strange occurences are recounted in the following paragraphs. The Lighthouse – There have been several reports that on foggy nights the old lighthouse, built in 1854 and torn down after it was damaged in the great 1906 San Francisco earthquake, will suddenly appear, accompanied by an eerie whistling sound and a flashing green light that makes its way slowly around the island and then vanishes as suddenly as it appears.

Edinburgh Castle, Edinburgh, Scotland
This magnificent castle is typically medieval, perched atop a rocky crag, giving it an amazing vista of Scottish hills. But inside the empty halls and narrow streets of Edinburgh, there are the echoes of the dead. At least, that’s what has been reported. Hot spots for specters include the castle’s prison cells, the South Bridge vaults and Mary’s King Close, a disused street used to quarantine and eventually entomb victims of the plague. There are also reports of ghost dogs, a headless drummer, and the bodies of prisoners taken during the French seven-year war and the American War of Independence.

Araku valley and its beauty

Araku valley is a famous hill station of AP. It is located at a distance of 120 KM from Visakhapatnam ( Vizag )is famous for its scenic beauty. Located on the eastern ghats , it has valley, water falls and streams flowing by the side of the train track and roads . The journey to Araku Valley is the most enjoying as the rail passes through tunnels, hill sides and streams. . It is better to go to Araku by train and return by road. You can see the local tribal dance at if you are on APTDC package tour. If you are at Araku then you must see Borra caves.

Padmapuram Gardens
Tree top Cottages at Araku One of the main attraction is tree top cottages located in the middle of green surroundings of Araku valley. These tree huts ( hanging cottages ) are ten feet above the ground level and one can experience rare swing along with trees. Huts are attached with toilet and continuous water supply.

For bookings contact Manager Padmapuram gardens Phone No:08936.49615 There is a toy train in the Padmapuram garden for the tourists. There is a tribal museum on tribal heritage, living system and culture. Anantagiri water fall is 30 KM from Araku. There is one more picnic spot called Dumbriguda Waterfalls ( Chaaparai ). This spot is only 15 Kms from Araku.

Araku parkTribal welfare department has one Horticulture nursery cum training center at Padmapuram . It is open from 8 AM to 12.30 PM and again on 2.00 PM to 5.00 PM

There is an AP tourism valley resort PUNAMI available at Araku valley.

TYDA – An eco-tourism project This nature camp located at a distance of 75 Km from Vizag is right place for bird watching, rock climbing, trekking and over night stay.

There is a rail with road journey package available by AP tourism with same day return or with one night stay.
 For more information on this post please follow the little ganesha frequently

Amazing facts about eyes

1.About 80 % of what we perceive comes through the eyes. Our memories are made 80 % by images. The eye comes with information about the depth, distance, shape, color and movement of the objects.

2.The human eye is one of nature's wonders and functions like a photo camera. Only that is much more complex.

An adult eye has about 24 mm (1 inch) in diameter and about 12 million photoreceptors (light sensitive cells) and six muscles that move the ocular sphere with such a precision that it allows the eye to follow moving objects. Like a camera, the eye has a diaphragm (called iris), whose opening (called pupil) degree adapts to the brightness of the environment. In weak light, the pupil will be large, to let more light inside. This happens for example in the dark or twilight. In the daylight, the pupil is small. The iris gives the eye's color.

The pupil can increase its size also under the effect of strong emotions (fear, sexual turn on).

The light rays that cross the pupil have been previously concentrated by the powerful action (till 45 dioptres) of the cornea, a transparent salient layer. The cornea is the front part of the white membrane of the eye, called sclerotica, which is rich in blood vessels. The cornea is devoid of blood vessels. Between cornea and iris-crystalline, there is the watery humour, that cleans and feed the cornea.

The crystalline lens is charged with the focusing of the light and its refraction index (between 19 and 38 dioptres) is adjusted by the ciliary muscles. When we look at a remote object, the crystalline relaxes and
flattens. 3.After crossing the vitreous humour, the light reaches the retina, a membrane possessing 130 photosensitive rods and 7 million color photosensitive cones. On the retina an upside down image is formed, a photo that is reverted by the brain.

The rods and the cones turn the light into electric signals which are transmitted through the ganglionic cells to the optic nerve and from there they reach the brain.

Rods are extremely sensitive to light, but they can distinguish only blue and green. The cones distinguish clear and colored images, but they require strong light. That's why in the dark, images are not clear and all appears in blue and green. Rods use vitamin A, that's why carrots, cabbage and other green vegetables benefit the eye.

4.Human eye can detect 10 million color hues, but cannot see ultraviolet or infrared light. Insects can see the ultraviolet light.

Birds have yellow fatty filters in their cones that allow them to differentiate hues of green and detect easily homocromous (having the same color with) leaf color mimicking insects, which are practically invisible at just one look for humans.

5.The human eye sees basically three colors: red, green and blue. These are basic colors. The white is a combination of the three, the black is their lack. Yellow, purple or mauve form through the combination of two basic colors; these are called secondary colors.

6.The fore eyeball and the inner eyelids are covered by a transparent layer called conjunctive. While blinking, the conjunctive and the tears (produced by the Harder glands in the inner corner of the eye) moisturize and clean of dirt and dust the cornea.

We blink once or twice at 10 seconds, and a blink lasts 0.3 seconds. In 12 hours, we blink 25 minutes. Infants starts blinking at the age of 6 months.

Tears drain into the nasal cavity and are more abundant in case of dust or dirt. Strong emotions also cause abundant tearing (weeping).

7.Most cones are agglomerated in a region of the retina called macula lutea ("yellow spot"). That's why to clearly see a thing, we have to move the eyes, so that the projection is formed on macula lutea. Close to macula lutea, there is a blind spot where the optic nerve goes out of the eye.

8.Eyes are protected in bony eyesockets, sheathed with a fatty tissue, so that usually, the socket is more harmed that the proper eye.

9.Because the eyes watch the environment from different angles, they send different information to the brain. The brain "learns" from the first days to assemble the two images, so that we do not see a double image. But the difference between the two images helps the brain detect the location of the objects in the space and distance. This is the tridimensional vision, provided by binocular sight (when the field of the two eyes interpose).

Arboreal and predatory animals need this type of sight for moving on the branches or hunt.

Prey animals have usually lateral positioned eyes. Their fields do not interpose (this is monocular vision). They cannot assess distances well, but this way have larger visual fields, overlooking the environment for predators.

10.Why do we see blurry underwater? This has to do with the refraction indexes. Air has the refraction index 1, cornea and water about 1.33. The human crystalline cannot focus properly the light when experiencing the refraction index of the water, that's why we see underwater things as being blurry. The issue is eliminated with diving glasses which put a layer of air before the eyes.

11. These are urban legends about the eye and the eye's functioning, without any scientific support.

a."The glasses increase the myopia and the hypermetropia because the eyes accustom the them."

Myopia (distant range vision impairment) and hypermetropia (short range vision impairment) are determined by the cornea's form and this form is not affected by the use of the glasses.

b."Reading in dim light harm the eyes". A new research proved this to be false. A poor illumination can cause headaches and harm the already weak eyes, but in fact strengthens the healthy eyes.

c."Crossing the eyes produce strabismus". The incorrect eyes' posture is the result of developmental impairments. Crossing the eyes for amusement is not dangerous.

d."The vein of the iris can show a person's health". Similarly to the fingerprints, the veins of the iris are very personal and cannot display the health of the owner.

e."The blue-eyed ones see better than the brown-eyed ones". The iris color has no link with the visual sharpness.

Criss Angel mindfreak

The fastest browser in the world Opera 10.50

March 2, 2010 - Oslo, Norway

Opera Software today released Opera 10.50, the fastest Web browser thus-far produced for Windows computers. Opera 10.50 also includes a sleek and refined new design, as well as private browsing, where Opera hides all traces of sites you visit. Opera 10.50 is available completely free from
Visual tabs

Browsing, refined

Sometimes a browser should just get out of your way. The improvements to Opera's look and feel are many, but the result is a leaner browsing experience, so you have more room on screen for content. The new Opera menu button replaces the traditional menu bar, so you have a single-point to access all of Opera's groundbreaking features.

Catching lightning in a bottle ... er, browser

Opera 10.50 is the fastest browser we have ever produced. Under the hood, we introduced a new JavaScript engine, Carakan, and a new graphics library, Vega. What that means to you: no more waiting around for a site to load.
Private tabs

Private browsing

What you do on the Web is up to you, no one else. Make sure it stays that way by using private browsing to remove specific sites from your browsing history. Unlike other browsers, Opera 10.50 allows you to browse privately in a tab or in an entirely separate window.

Platform integration

On Windows 7/Vista, we let Opera enjoy Aero Glass, as well as supporting Aero Peek and Jump Lists. Now, you can easily access your Speed Dials, tabs and more from the Taskbar.

The old favorites

Opera has pioneered or introduced many of the features commonplace in Web browsers today, such as tabs and Speed Dial. But, a few just cannot be found anywhere else:
  • Opera Turbo - Whenever your bandwidth slows to a crawl, just turn on Opera Turbo, and let your worries eat your dust. Opera Turbo compresses Web pages on our powerful servers. Because you transfer less data, Web content gets to you faster.
  • Opera Unite - Share content immediately, without uploading files or posting to a social network. Opera Unite combines the flexibility of a Web application with the capability of a Web server, easily accessible from your browser.
  • Opera Link - Take your data with you. Synchronize your Speed Dial, notes, search-engine preferences and more; then, just log into any other Opera Web browser or even Opera Mini, the world's most popular mobile Web browser.

What we say

"Opera 10.50 is the fastest browser in almost all speed tests," said Lars Boilesen, CEO, Opera. "But, more important than any speed test is the real-world speed during use. We designed Opera 10.50 to be easy to use, while making our unique features stand out, so you can get more out of the Web."

Rewriting the Web with HTML5 and CSS3

Opera 10.50 includes improved standards support for HTML5 and CSS3, giving Web designers the tools they need to make eye-catching Web applications that work on completely open technologies. Read more for complete information on standards support in Opera 10.50.


Opera is available completely free from or via Microsoft's browser choice screen. Opera 10.50 is currently available for Windows and comes in 42 different languages. Mac and Linux versions are coming soon.


About Opera Software ASA

Opera Software ASA has redefined web browsing for PCs, mobile phones and other networked devices. Opera’s cross-platform web-browser technology is renowned for its performance, standards compliance and small size, while giving users a faster, safer and more dynamic online experience. Opera Software is headquartered in Oslo, Norway, with offices around the world. The company is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange under the ticker symbol OPERA. Learn more about Opera at


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