Sunday, April 24, 2011

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle
PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota
PSLV-C8 (CA Variant) carrying the AGILE x-ray and γ-ray astronomical satellite of the ASI lifting off from Sriharikota
Function Medium Lift Launch System
Manufacturer ISRO
Country of origin  India
Height 44 metres (144 ft)
Diameter 2.8 metres (9 ft 2 in)
Mass 294,000 kilograms (650,000 lb)
Stages 4
Payload to
3,250 kilograms (7,200 lb)
Payload to
1,600 kilograms (3,500 lb)[1]
Payload to
1,060 kilograms (2,300 lb)[1]
Launch history
Status Active
Launch sites Sriharikota
Total launches 17
PSLV: 10
Successes 15
Failures 1 (PSLV)
Partial failures 1 (PSLV)
Maiden flight PSLV: 20 September 1993
PSLV-CA: 23 April 2007
PSLV-XL: 22 October 2008
Notable payloads Chandrayaan-1
Boosters (Stage 0)
№ boosters 6
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 502.600 kN
Specific impulse 262 sec
Burn time 44 seconds
Fuel HTPB (solid)
First stage
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 4,860 kN
Specific impulse 269 sec
Burn time 105 seconds
Fuel HTPB (solid)
Second stage
Engines 1 Vikas (liquid)
Thrust 725 kN
Specific impulse 293 sec
Burn time 158 seconds
Fuel N2O4/UDMH
Third stage
Engines 1 solid
Thrust 328 kN
Specific impulse 294 sec
Burn time 83 seconds
Fuel Solid
Fourth stage
Engines 2 liquid
Thrust 14 kN
Specific impulse 308 sec
Burn time 425 seconds
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: ध्रुवीय उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण यान), commonly known by its abbreviation PSLV, is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). It was developed to allow India to launch its Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) satellites into sun synchronous orbits, a service that was, until the advent of the PSLV, commercially viable only from Russia. PSLV can also launch small size satellites into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO). The PSLV has launched 41 satellites (19 Indian and 22 from other countries) into a variety of orbits to date.
PSLV costs 17 million USD flyaway cost for each launch.



[edit] Vehicle description

The PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately. The first stage is one of the largest solid-fuel rocket boosters in the world and carries 138 tonnes of Hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) bound propellant with a diameter of 2.8 m. The motor case is made of maraging steel. The booster develops a maximum thrust of about 4,430 kN. Six strap-on motors, four of which are ignited on the ground, augment the first stage thrust. Each of these solid propellant strap-on motors carries nine tonnes of HTPB propellant and produces 677 kN thrust. Pitch and yaw control of the PSLV during the thrust phase of the solid motor is achieved by injection of an aqueous solution of strontium perchlorate in the nozzle to constitute Secondary Injection Thrust Vector Control System (SITVC). The injection is stored in two cylindrical aluminum tanks strapped to the solid rocket motor and pressurized with nitrogen. There are two additional small liquid engine control power plants in the first stage, the Roll Control Thrusters (RCT), fixed radially opposite one on each side, between the triplet set of strap-on boosters. RCT is used for roll control during the first stage and the SITVC in two strap-on motors is for roll control augmentation.
The second stage employs the Vikas engine and carries 41.5 tonnes (40 tonnes till C-5 mission) of liquid propellant – Unsymmetrical Di-Methyl Hydrazine (UDMH) as fuel and Nitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as oxidizer. It generates a maximum thrust of 800 kN (724 till C-5 mission). Pitch & yaw control is obtained by hydraulically gimbaled engine (±4°) and two hot gas reaction control for roll.
The third stage uses 7 tonnes of HTPB-based solid propellant and produces a maximum thrust of 324 kN. It has a Kevlar-polyamide fiber case and a submerged nozzle equipped with a flex-bearing-seal gimbaled nozzle (±2°) thrust-vector engine for pitch & yaw control. For roll control it uses the RCS (Reaction Control System) of fourth stage.
The fourth and the terminal stage of PSLV has a twin engine configuration using liquid propellant. With a propellant loading of 2 tonnes (Mono-Methyl Hydrazine as fuel + Mixed Oxides of Nitrogen as oxidiser), each of these engines generates a maximum thrust of 7.4 kN. Engine is gimbaled (±3°) for pitch, yaw & roll control and for control during the coast phase uses on-off RCS. PSLV-C4 used a new lightweight carbon composite payload adapter to enable a greater GTO payload capability.
PSLV is developed with a group of wide-range control units.

Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4
Pitch SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Yaw SITVC Engine Gimbal Flex Nozzle Engine Gimbal
Roll RCT and SITVC in 2 PSOMs HRCM Hot Gas Reaction Control Motor PS4 RCS PS4 RCS

[edit] Development

PSLV is designed and developed at Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre (VSSC), Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. The inertial systems are developed by ISRO Inertial Systems Unit (IISU) at Thiruvananthapuram. The liquid propulsion stages for the second and fourth stages of PSLV as well as the reaction control systems are developed by the Liquid Propulsion Systems Centre (LPSC), also at Thiruvananthapuram. The solid propellant motors are processed by Satish Dhawan Space Centre SHAR, which also carries out launch operations.
After some delays, the PSLV had its first launch on 20 September 1993. Although all main engines performed as expected, an altitude control problem was reported in the second and third stages. After this initial setback, ISRO met complete success with the third developmental launch in 1996. Further successful launches followed in 1997, 1999, and 2001.
PSLV continues to be the work horse of Indian satellite launches, especially for LEO satellites and the Chandrayaan Projects. It has undergone several improvements with each subsequent version, especially those involving thrust, efficiency as well as weight.

[edit] Variants

ISRO has envisaged a number of variants of PSLV to cater to different mission requirements. These configurations provide wide variations in payload capabilities ranging from 600 kg in LEO to 1900 kg in sun synchronous orbit.
PSLV (Operational)
The standard version of the PSLV has four stages using solid and liquid propulsion systems alternately and six strap-on boosters. It currently has capability to launch 1,678 kg to 622 km into sun synchronous orbit.
PSLV-CA (Operational)
The PSLV-CA, CA meaning "Core Alone", model premiered on April 23, 2007. The CA model does not include the six strap-on boosters used by the PSLV standard variant. Two small roll control modules and two first stage motor control injection tanks were still attached to the side of the first stage.[2] The fourth stage of the CA variant has 400 kg less propellant when compared to its standard version.[2] It currently has capability to launch 1,100 kg to 622 km sun synchronous orbit.[3]
PSLV-XL (Operational)
PSLV-XL is the uprated version of ISRO’s Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle in its standard configuration boosted by more powerful, stretched strap-on boosters.[2] Weighing 320 tonnes at lift-off, the vehicle uses larger strap-on motors (PSOM-XL) to achieve higher payload capability. PSOM-XL uses larger 13.5m, 12 tonnes of solid propellants instead of 9 tonnes used in the earlier configuration of PSLV.[4] On 29 December 2005, ISRO successfully tested the improved version of strap-on booster for the PSLV. The first version of PSLV-XL was the launch of Chandrayaan-1 by PSLV-C11. The payload capability for this variant is 1800 kg compared to 1600 kg for the other variants.[3] Future launches include the RISAT Radar Imaging Satellite.[5]
Variant↓ Launches↓ Successes↓ Failures↓ Partial failures↓ Remarks↓
PSLV (Standard) 10 8 1 1
PSLV-CA (Core Alone) 6 6 0 0 Launched 10 satellites in one go.
PSLV-XL (Extended) 1 1 0 0 Launched Chandrayaan I.
PSLV-HP (Under development / Proposed)
As reported on the website of The New Indian Express newspaper (April 26, 2007), PSLV project director N Narayanamoorthy spoke of another version being planned called the PSLV-HP, standing for ‘high performance.’ It will have improved strap-ons motors,[3] and the payload capability will be raised to 2000 kg.[3] The HP version will be used to launch a constellation of seven navigation satellites between 2010 and 2012. Among other things, the efficiency of the stage 4 engine will be improved in this version.
PSLV-3S (Under development / Proposed)
ISRO is also considering the development of a three-stage version of the rocket without six strap-on boosters (with the second stage of the four-stage version removed) which will be capable of placing 500 kg to LEO.[3][6]

[edit] Launch history

Vehicle Variant Date of Launch Launch Location Payload Payload Mass Mission Status Note(s)
D1 PSLV 20 September 1993[7] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS 1E 846 kg[7] Failure First development flight.
Software error causes the vehicle to crash in to the Bay of Bengal 700 seconds after take off.
D2 PSLV 15 October 1994[8] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS P2 804 kg[8] Success First successful development flight.
D3 PSLV 21 March 1996[9] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS P3 920 kg[9] Success
C1 PSLV 29 September 1997[10] Sriharikota FLP* India IRS 1D 1,250 kg[10] Partial failure Sub-optimal injection of Satellite.
C2 PSLV 26 May 1999[11] Sriharikota FLP* India OceanSat 1
Germany DLR-Tubsat
South Korea KitSat 3
1,050 kg[11]
107 kg[11]
45 kg[11]
Success First successful commercial flight.
C3 PSLV 22 October 2001[12] Sriharikota FLP* India TES
Belgium Proba
Germany BIRD
1,108 kg[12]
94 kg[12]
92 kg[12]
Success Speculated as a Spy Satellite.[13]
C4 PSLV 12 September 2002[14] Sriharikota FLP* India METSAT 1 (Kalpana 1) 1,060 kg[14] Success First launch to Geostationary transfer orbit.[14]
C5 PSLV 17 October 2003[15] Sriharikota FLP* India ResourceSat 1 1,360 kg[15] Success
C6 PSLV 5 May 2005[16] Sriharikota SLP** India CartoSat 1
1560 kg[16]
42.5 kg[16]
C7 PSLV 10 January 2007[17] Sriharikota FLP* India CartoSat 2
India SRE
Indonesia LAPAN-TUBsat
Argentina PEHUENSAT-1
680 kg[17]
500 kg[17]
56 kg[17]
6 kg[17]
Success Used a device called 'Dual Launch Adapter' for the first time to launch four satellites.[18]
LAPAN-TUBsat is Indonesia’s first remote sensing satellite.
C8 PSLV-CA 23 April 2007[19] Sriharikota SLP** Italy AGILE
India AAM
352 kg[19]
185 kg[19]
Success First flight of the 'Core-Alone' version.
ISRO's first exclusively commercial launch.[20]
C10 PSLV-CA 21 January 2008[21] Sriharikota FLP* Israel TECSAR 295 kg[21] Success An Israeli reconnaissance satellite.[22]
C9 PSLV-CA 28 April 2008[23][24] Sriharikota SLP** India Cartosat-2A
Germany RUBIN-8
Canada CanX-6/NTS
Canada CanX-2
Japan Cute-1.7+APD II
Netherlands Delfi-C3
Japan SEEDS-2
Germany COMPASS-1
690 kg
83 kg
8 kg
6.5 kg
3.5 kg
3 kg
2.2 kg
1 kg
1 kg
0.75 kg
Success World Record for most satellites (10) launched in a single attempt.
C11 PSLV-XL 22 October 2008[25] Sriharikota SLP** India Chandrayaan I 1,380 kg[25] Success First flight of the PSLV-XL version.
India's first mission to the Moon.[26]
C12 PSLV-CA 20 April 2009[27] Sriharikota SLP** India RISAT-2
300 kg[27]
40 kg[27]
Success India's first all weather observation spy satellite.[28]
ANUSAT is the first satellite built by an Indian University.
C14 PSLV-CA 23 September 2009[29] Sriharikota FLP* India Oceansat-2
Luxembourg Rubin 9.1
Germany Rubin 9.2
Switzerland SwissCube-1
Germany BeeSat
Germany UWE-2
Turkey ITUpSAT1
960 kg[29]
8 kg[29]
8 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
1 kg[29]
Success Rubin 9.1 and 9.2 were non-separable payloads,[30] orbited attached to the vehicle's fourth stage.[31][32]

SwissCube-1[33] and ITUpSAT1[34] are Switzerland's and Turkey's first home-grown satellites launched into space.
C15 PSLV-CA July 12, 2010 [35] Sriharikota FLP* India Cartosat-2B
Algeria ALSAT-2A
Norway AISSat-1[36]
Switzerland TIsat-1[37][38]
690 kg [39]
117 kg[39]
6.5 kg[39]
1 kg
Success Main satellite Cartosat-2B and Algeria's ALSAT-2A along with AISSat-1, TIsat-1, and StudSat. TIsat-1 is the second ever Swiss satellite launched into Space. AISSat-1 and TIsat are part of NLS-6.[40][41]
C16 PSLV 20 April 2011[42] Sriharikota India ResourceSat-2
Singapore X-Sat
IndiaRussia YouthSat
1206 kg[42]
106 kg[42]
92 kg[42]
Success In the current flight, the standard version, with six solid strap-on booster motors strung around the first stage, was used.[42]
Planned launches
C17 PSLV 2011 Sriharikota IndiaGSAT-12[43]
C18 PSLV 2011 Sriharikota IndiaRISAT-1
C?? PSLV-?? 2011 Sriharikota India& France Megha-Tropiques IndiaSRMSAT

C?? PSLV-?? 2011 Sriharikota India Astrosat
'*'FLP - First Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre; **SLP - Second Launch Pad, Satish Dhawan Space Centre

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